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Soumen Paul, PhD

Director, Center for Perinatal Research
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

PhD, University of Calcutta, India, 2002
Postdoctoral, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2002-2007

To learn more about our research, please visit the Paul Lab web site

Postdoctoral fellows and Ph.D. students needed. Contact me for more info.

We are asking how transcriptional mechanisms that involve, transcription factors/cofactors, distinct epigenetic marks, and other chromatin-associated factors regulate chromatin structure and thereby regulate gene expression during mammalian development. 

One of our research interests is to define molecular processes that control the genesis of early cell lineages, their self-renewal, differentiation, and function. The first lineage decision during mammalian development is the establishment of Trophectoderm (TE) and and inner cell mass (ICM) lineages. These differentiation events begin during pre-implanation development when blastomeres are fated towards TE and ICM. TE develops into parts of the placenta, while the ICM forms embryonic and some extra-embryonic structures. To understand this early lineage commitment, we are using embryonic stem (ES) and trophoblast stem (TS) cells as model system. We are also studying molecular mechanisms that control development of trophoblast lineage in postimplantation embryos. We are using transgenic mouse models as well human TSCs and human placentas to test our hypotheses.Another area of our research interest is to dissect mechanisms to understand the molecular regulation of blood and blood vessel formation (Hematopoiesis and Angiogenesis).

Areas of research in Paul laboratory

Localization of transcription factor TEAD4 (green) with respect to nuclei (red) in a mouse blastocyst. The ICM nuclei (white border) lack nuclear TEAD4 (See Saha et al letter to PNAS and Home et al. PNAS, below)

Early embryonic and placental defect in Gata2/Gata3-dual knockout mice (From Home et al. Development, 2017).

Recent Publications:

Saha, B., Ganguly, A., Home, P., Bhattacharya, B., Ray, S., Ghosh, A., Rumi, M.A.K., Marsh, C., French, V., Gunewardena, S., and Paul, S. (2020) TEAD4 Ensures Post-implantation Development by Promoting Trophoblast Self-Renewal: An Implication in Early Human Pregnancy Loss. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA), In Press.

Bhattacharya, B., Home, P., Ganguly, A., Ray, S., Ghosh, A., Islam, R., French, V., Marsh, C., Gunewardena, S., Okae, H., Arima, H., and Paul, S. (2020) Atypical Protein Kinase C iota (PKCλ/ι) Ensures Mammalian Development by Establishing the Maternal-Fetal Exchange Interface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Jun 8:201920201. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1920201117. Online ahead of print.

Milano-Foster, J., Ray, S., Home, P., Ganguly, A., Bhattacharya, B., Bajpai, S., Pal, A., Mason, C. W., Paul, S. (2019) Regulation of human trophoblast syncytialization by histone demethylase LSD1. J Biol Chem. 2019 Nov 15;294(46):17301-17313. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA119.010518. Epub 2019 Oct 7. PMCID: PMC6873176.

Kumar. R. P., Ray, S., Home, P., Saha, B., Bhattacharya, B., Wilkins, H.M., Chavan, H., Ganguly, A., Milano-Foster, A., Krishnamurthy, P., Swerdlow, R. H., Paul, A., and Paul, S. (2018) Regulation of Energy Metabolism during Early Mammalian Development: TEAD4 Controls Mitochondrial Transcription. Development 145(19) doi: 10.1242/dev.162644.

Paul, S., Home, P., Bhattacharya, B., Ray, S. (2017) GATA factors: Master regulators of gene expression in trophoblast progenitors. Placenta S0143-4004(17)30268-0. doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2017.05.005.

Home, P., Kumar, R. P., Ganguly, A., Saha, B., Foster, J. M., Bhattacharya, B., Ray, S., Gunewardena, S., Paul, A., Camper, S. A., Fields, P. E. and Paul, S. (2017) Genetic Redundancy of GATA Factors in Extraembryonic Trophoblast Lineage Ensures Progression of both Pre and Postimplantation Mammalian Development. Development 144(5):876-888. doi: 10.1242/dev.145318.

Aljitawi O S, Paul, S, Ganguly A, Lin TL, Ganguly S, Vielhauer G, Capitano ML, Cantilena A, Lipe B, Mahnken JD, Wise A, Berry A, Singh AK, Shune L, Lominska C, Abhyankar S, Allin D, Laughlin M, McGuirk JP, Broxmeyer HE. (2016) Erythropoietin modulation is associated with improved homing and engraftment after umbilical cord blood transplantation. Blood 128:3000-3010.

Paul, A., Danley, M., Saha, B., Tawfik, O., Paul S. (2015) PKCζ Promotes Breast Cancer Invasion by Regulating Expression of E-cadherin and Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) via NFκB-p65. Sci Rep.;5:12520. doi: 10.1038/srep12520

Carey, T. S., Cao, Z., Choi, I., Ganguly, A., Wilson, C. A., Paul, S., Knott, J. G. (2015) BRG1 governs Nanog transcription in early mouse embryos and embryonic stem cells via antagonism of histone H3 lysine 9/14 acetylation. Mol Cell Biol. 35(24):4158-69. doi: 10.1128/MCB.00546-15. Epub 2015 Sep 28

Cao, Z., Carey, T. S., Ganguly, A., Wilson, C. A., Paul, S., Knott, J. G. (2015) Transcription factor AP-2γ induces early Cdx2 expression and represses HIPPO signaling to specify the trophectoderm lineage. Development. 142:1606-15. PMCID: PMC4419278

Mahato, B., Home, P., Rajendran, G., Paul, A., Saha, B., Ganguly, A., Ray, S., Roy, N., Swerdlow, R.H., and Paul, S. (2014) Regulation of Mitochondrial Function and Cellular Energy Metabolism by Protein Kinase C-λ/ι: A Novel Mode of Balancing Pluripotency. Stem Cells 32: 2880-2892. PMCID: PMC4198455

Paul, A., Gunewardena, S., Stecklein, S., Saha, B., Parelkar, N., Dan;ey, M., Rajendran, G., Home, P., Ray, S., Jokar, I., Vielhauer, G., Jensen, R., Tawfik, O., and Paul, S. (2014) "PKCλ/ι Signaling Promotes Triple Negative Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis" Cell Death and Dif. 21:1469-1481. PMCID: PMC4131178

Paul, S., and Knott, G., (2014) Epigenetic control of cell fate in mouse blastocyst: The role of covalent histone modifications and chromatin remodeling. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 81:172-82.

Rajendran, G., Dutta, D., Hong, J., Paul, A., Saha, B., Mahato, B., Ray, S., Home, P., Gangly, A., Weiss, M. L., and Paul, S. (2013) Inhibition of protein kinase C signaling maintains rat embryonic stem cell pluripotency. J. Biol. Chem. 288:24351-62. PMCID: PMC3750137.

Yoshinaga, K., PrabhuDas, M., Davies, C., White, K., Caron, K., Golos, T., Fazleabas, A., Paria, B., Mor, G., Paul, S., Ye, X., Dey, S. K., Spencer, T., Roberts, R. M. (2013). Interdedisciplinary collaborative team for blastocyst implantation research: inception and perspectives. Am J. Reprod. Immunol. 71:1-11.

Hong J, He H, Bui P, Ryba-White B, Rumi MA, Soares MJ, Dutta D, Paul S, Kawamata M, Ochiya T, Ying QL, Rajanahalli P, Weiss ML (2012), A focused microaaray for screening rat embryonic stem cells. (2013) Stem Cell. Dev. 22(3):431-43.

Saha, B., Home, P., Ray, S., Pal, A., Larson, M., Rajendran, G., Behr, B., and Paul, S. (2013) EED and KDM6B Coordinate First Mammalian Cell Lineage Commitment to Ensure Embryo Implantation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 33(14):2691-705. PMCID: PMC3700131
Home, P., Saha, B., Dutta, D., Ray, S., Pal, A., Gunewardena, S., Yoo, B., Vivian, J. L., Larson, M., Petroff, M., Gallagher, P. G., Schulz, V., White, K.L., Golos, T. G., Behr, B., and Paul, S. (2012) Altered Subcellular Localization of Transcription Factor TEAD4 Regulates First Mammalian Cell Lineage Commitment. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19):7362-7.

Dutta, D., Ray, S., Home, P., Larson, M., Wolfe M.W., and Paul, S. (2011) Self Renewal vs. Lineage Commitment of Embryonic Stem Cells: Protein Kinase C Signaling Shifts the Balance. STEM CELLS 29(4):618-28.

Dutta, D., Ray, S., Home, P., Wang, S., Sheibani, N., Tawfik, O., Cheng, N., and Paul, S. Regulation of Angiogenesis by Histone Chaperone HIRA-Mediated Incorporation of Lysine 56-Acetylated Histone H3.3 at Chromatin Domains of Endothelial Genes. J. Biol. Chem. (285:41567-77)

Home, P., Ray, S., Dutta, D., Bronshteyn, I., Larson, M., and Paul, S. (2009) GATA3 is selectively expressed in the trophectoderm of peri-implantation embryo and directly regulates CDX2 gene expression. J. Biol. Chem. 284: 28729-37

Ray, S., Dutta, D., Rumi, M., Canham, L., Soares, M. J., and Paul, S. (2009) Context-dependent function of regulatory elements and switch in chromatin occupancy between GATA3 and GATA2 regulate Gata2 trasncription during trophoblast differentiation. J. Biol. Chem. 284:4978-4988.

Dutta, D., Ray, S., Vivian, J. L., and Paul, S. (2008) Activation of the VEGFR1 chromatin domain: An angiogenic signal-ETS1/HIF-2alpha regulatory axis. J. Biol. Chem. 283:25404-25413.

Selected Prior Publications:

Pal, S., Wu, J., Murray, J. K., Gellman, S. H., Wozniak, M. A., Keely, P. J., Boyer, M. E., Gomez, T. M., Hasso, S. M., Fallon J. F., and Bresnick, E. H. (2006) An Anti-Angiogenic Neurokinin-B/Thromboxane A2 Regulatory Axis. J. Cell Biol. 174:1047-1058.

Grass, J. A., Jing, H., Kim, S. L., Martowicz, M. L., Pal, S., Blobel G. A., and Bresnick, E. H. (2006) Hematopoietic Regulation via GATA Factor Complexes Dispersed Over Broad Region of the GATA-2 Chromatin Domain. Mol. Cell Biol. 26:7056-7067.

Pal, S., Nemeth, M. J., Bodine, D., Miller, J. L., Svaren, J., Thein, S. L., Lowry, P. J., and Bresnick, E. H. (2004) Neurokinin-B transcription in erythroid cells: Direct activation by the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1. J. Biol. Chem. 279:31348-31356.

Pal, S, Cantor, A. B., Johnson, K. D., Moran, T. B., Boyer, M. E., Orkin, S. H. and Bresnick, E. H. (2004) Coregulator-dependent facilitation of chromatin occupancy by GATA-1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101: 980-985.

Grass, J. A., Boyer, M. E., Pal, S., Wu, J., Weiss, M. J., and Bresnick, E. H. (2003) GATA-1-dependent transcriptional repression of GATA-2 via disruption of positive autoregulation and domain-wide chromatin remodeling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100: 8811-8816.

Basu, A., Pal, S., Chowdhuri, S., Bhattacharya, A., Pal, D., Chattoraj, D.K., and DasGupta, C. (2003). Ribosome-DnaK interactions in relation to protein folding. Mol. Microbiol. 48: 1679-1692.

Sanyal, S.C., Pal, S., Chowdhury, S., and DasGupta, C. (2002) 23S rRNA-assisted folding of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase is distinctly different from its self-folding. Nucl. Acids Res. 30: 2390-2397.

Chowdhury, S., Pal, S., Ghosh, J., and DasGupta, C. (2002) Mutations in domain V of the 23S ribosomal RNA of Bacillus subtilis that inactivates its protein folding property in vitro. Nucl. Acids Res. 30: 1278-1285.

Pal, S., Chandra, S., Chowdhury, S., Sarkar, D., Ghosh, A.N., and DasGupta, C. (1999) Complementary role of two fragments of domain V of 23S ribosomal RNA in protein folding. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 32771-32777.

(The spelling of last name was "Pal" instead of "Paul" for earlier publications)

Last modified: Aug 17, 2020

Soumen Paul, PhD


Soumen Paul, PhD
Director, Center for Perinatal Research

Paul Laboratory