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GASTROINTESTINAL PHYSIOLOGY

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ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

SMOOTH MUSCLE: All smooth muscle is innervated by the autonomic nervous system.

SLOW-WAVES: The basal electrical tone of smooth muscle. No contraction occurs with slow-waves.

ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: The GI nervous system is independent of the CNS. Activity can go on without any CNS input.

MYOGENIC CONTRACTILITY: The gut has some contractility without any nervous input whatsoever.

PARALYTIC ILEUS: Loss of GI contractility.

TYPES OF MOTILITY:


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HORMONES, ENZYMES, REGULATORY SUBSTANCES AND STUFF

NEUROENDOCRINE HORMONES: All of below are either exclusively endocrine (glandular secretions into bloodstream), exclusively neural (neurotransmitter) or both. All of below serve regulatory (as opposed to digestive) functions.

PREGNANCY:


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MOTILITY

THE ESOPHAGUS:

THE STOMACH:

SMALL INTESTINE:

COLON:

VOMITING:


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SECRETIONS and ABSORPTION

SALIVARY SECRETIONS: Average about 1500 mL a day.

GASTRIC SECRETIONS:

ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME:

PANCREATIC SECRETIONS:

GALL BLADDER / BILIARY SECRETIONS:

SYNTHESIS / STRUCTURE OF BILE ACIDS: Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and secreted through the common bile duct.

BILIRUBIN METABOLISM AND EXCRETION:

JAUNDICE: Caused by bilirubin build up, indicating problems with the liver.

INTESTINAL ABSORPTION: Absorption is ultimately dependent on the Na+/K+ Pump to create the gradient.

NEUROGENIC SECRETION:

DIARRHEA:

PROTEIN DIGESTION:

CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION:

FAT DIGESTION:


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Copyright 1999, Scott Goodman, all rights reserved