Infertility is a common problem affecting up to 15% of couples. An estimated 4.6 to 7.3 million U.S. couples seek infertility care in the United States. 50% of cases have a female factor, 20% have a male factor, and 30% have combined factors. That means 50% of infertile couples will have an element of male factor infertility. Diagnosis and treatment of male infertility can lead to lower intensity of infertility treatments possibly associated with improved success and decreased treatment costs. What is male factor infertility?
One in a hundred of all men referred for infertility have been shown to have a previously unsuspected medical condition diagnosed on evaluation including genetic disorders, endocrine diseases, and malignancies. Importantly, semen analysis alone was unable to identify the men at highest risk for disease. Kolettis and Sabanegh found that 6% of all men referred for infertility had other medical diseases that were only brought to the attention of the doctor because the couple were being seen for male related infertility. We have also reported a number of cases of medical diseases that have been found during the male evaluation at the the time of infertility diagnosis. Research suggests that male infertility is associated with a higher testicular and prostate cancer risk. Childless men may also have a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality later in life. Higher risk of shorter life expectancy in men with abnormal semen parameters has been reported. There are potentially later problems from low testosterone related bone health, cardiovascular and sexual issues. It is important for the overall men's health, that we at the Dept of Urology here in Kansas City care about the long term consequences of a diagnosis of male infertility in the reproductive years. Cutting edge research is ongoing also under the guidance of Dr Ajay Nangia (Director of Andrology in the Dept of Urology), to better understand the causes of male infertility. New treatment options are being investigated. Dr Nangia is a urologist that specializes in the care of men locally in Kansas City, the MidWest and nationally. He specializes in the sophisiticated and complex genetic, hormonal, ejaculation and erection problems, microsurgical correction of blockage probems (due to infections, vasectomy and other traumas/surgeries) that could potentially be corrected. Men will be guided to to better men's health monitoring and hopefully improving quality of sperm if assisted reproductive technology is needed. Since women see gynecologists who specialize in their reproductive needs, shouldn't men be seen by a male specialist? Dr Nangia works closely with all the female reproductive specialists in the Kansas City area that perform assisted reproductive techniques i.e. intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). The overall joint care of the male and female partners as a couple is the key to succeeding in the joy of achieving a pregnancy and healthy baby.
Many causes of male infertility exist ranging from hormonal, blockages, genetic, environmental/lifestyle, medications or unexplained to name a few. Certain potentially life-threatening medical conditions may present for the first time as the inability to achieve a pregnancy and lower sperm counts, such as testicular tumors and some brain tumors. They are uncommon, and the reason why male patients should be evaluated in couples that have infertility.
The evaluation should involve a thorough history and physical and evaluate some of the risk factors that are known to cause male infertility e.g. some childhood disorders that do not become a concern until later in life e/g undescended testicle(s); infections; smoking, alcohol and drug use; certain issues with heat (not boxers or briefs – a myth); cancer treatments; spinal cord injury and other medical conditions. Blockages of the reproductive tract can sometimes be the cause and possible reconstruction using microsurgery can be performed to reverse this and avoid assisted reproduction techniques (ART) and have children naturally. Unfortunately these blockages sometimes cannot be corrected and sperm retrieval techniques and sperm freezing are required for in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) – one sperm injected into an egg outside the body.
Correction of men with low counts and/or motility can also be corrected with a full evaluation, correcting any treatable causes e.g. manipulation of hormones, and correction of certain conditions such as:
Varicoceles – dilated veins in the scrotum that are thought to increase scrotal temperature and affect sperm production. Up to 40% of men who present with infertility have a varicocele on exam. Treatment for this requires careful patient selection and can result in 40-70% improvement in sperm production and up to 40% improvement in pregnancy rates. Even some men with no sperm in their semen who have a varicocele may get return of sperm (approx 17%). It is important to know that the number of sperm is usually not enough for natural conception in these cases and would require ART with IVF. Correction of the varicocele is a same day surgery as an outpatient but is in the operating room and requires an operating microscope to tie off the veins accurately and completely without causing damage to the blood supply to the testicle. Embolization of the veins can also be performed.
Other conditions that can cause male infertility are:
Hormonal Problems: Up to 10% of male infertility may have a hormonal association and determination of how important that is requires expertize in the field of male infertility. Many of these hormonal issues arise from childhood, but a recent trend on the rise is the overuse of testosterone for "low T" in men still in their reproductive years and who still want children. Dr Nangia specializes in the management of these men, many of whom have male infertility. Male patients who want children should not be placed on testosterone - this will shut down sperm production. Correction of the testosterone level has limited success for male fertility but is becoming more and more recognized as a potential health concern for later heart disease, insulin resistance and diabetes. To correct the testosterone in such men, non testosterone methods/medications are an option. Dr Nangia has a special interest and expertise in this field and will be able to discuss this with you and how it relates to male reproductive and post reproductive health.
Obesity can cause hormonal abnormalities that need to be corrected. Of course weight loss is the best way for many reasons. Life threatening conditions e.g. prolactinoma of the pituitary gland can show up for the first time during a couples difficulty getting pregnant and male infertility. This condition requires urgent care and in the early stages can be managed with medication alone.
Retrograde ejaculation: when semen goes backwards into the bladder and not outwards. Retrograde ejaculation can be caused by previous surgery such as prostate; medications such as alpha blockers; or diseases affecting the nervous system such as diabetes and spinal cord injuries. Sometimes this occurs in men with no known medical conditions. It may be corrected with the use of medications.
Blockage/Obstruction: when a blockage of the sperm system occurs from the back of the testicle (epididymis) to the sperm duct (vas deferens) and the prostate. Sometimes this happens because of injury or infection. Most times it is due to a vasectomy. These blockages can be corrected with microsurgery and can lead to pregnancy without the need of assisted reproduction such as IVF. Dr Nangia specializes in such cases. It is sometimes necessary to perform a biopsy of the testicle to prove that sperm are present. Sometimes reconstruction is not possible and consideration for freezing sperm/tissue from the testicle needs to be considered at the same time as the diagnostic biopsy.
Medications, Lifestyle and Environmental: Certain medications and environmental toxins are known to cause male infertility and affect sperm function e.g. pesticides and petroleum products. Lifestyle issues such as smoking, chewing tobacco, excessive alcohol use and drug use (including anabolic steroids) are know to cause infertility. Dr Nangia has extensive experience in the management of many of these issues and correction of hormonal problems that may occur as a result that cause male infertility. Obesity is a known cause for male infertility. The issue of lap tops and cell phones has recently been popular in the press as possible causes of male infertility. The data from the papers written is completely convincing at the moment but certainly needs to be considered especially the heat issue from lap tops.
Genetic: Some causes of male infertility such as men with no sperm (azoospermia) or very low counts can be due to a production problem, 5-25% of these cases can be due to a abnormal number of X and Y chromosomes or due to a piece of male Y chromosome missing. Other conditions such as Klinefelter Syndrome and Congenital Bilateral Absence of the Vas Deferens both are well described genetic conditions that cause male infertility and need be diagnosed for issues with the general health of the male that can be an issue later in life.
Unexplained: A large number of male infertility cases are unfortunately still unexplained. This is called idiopathic. For this there are a number of methods that can be tried to improve the situation and hopefully achieve natural conception or possibly improve the quality of any assisted reproductive techniques used. Dr Nangia specializes in helping couples maximize all the cutting edge knowledge on the subject to improve such issues.
Sporting Injuries and Male Infertility: Have you ever watched boys at high school sports all the way to professional sports and winced when a player takes a hit in the groin? So you should. It hurts and has some serious potential consequences. Not only does it cause the player to double over in pain, but can cause a rupture of the testicle and injury to the reproductive and urinary system. All of these issues can lead to problems with erections and cause infertility i.e. prevents men fathering children. This may not concern young men who feel that they are indestructible and feel that they are forever virile. In fact not getting a sexually transmitted infection or having children is usually more paramount in their minds, but at some point in their lives they may want children. In these situations an injury earlier in life can be tragic to the hopes and aspirations of a couple and cause serious social, psychological and economical distress in a relationship and change hopes for the future. It is primarily because of this potential tragedy that many specialists see that prevention of injury is needed through education about protection. Education of boys/young men at the time of sports physicals is essential – ranging from testicular self exams to detect testicular cancer early; education about contraception; STD prevention; to injury prevention. This is also important because most males who engage in sports are in their reproductive years; in an age group with the highest risk of risky/dangerous and care-free behavior; as well as the age group most likely to develop testicular cancer. A number of studies have revealed that young males lack knowledge of genital health. Young women are educated from an early age with earlier sexual development and also the start of the menstrual cycle, birth control and cervical cancer screening. There is no equivalent reason to see a medical provider for boys/young men, which is why the sports physical becomes an important venue to start preventative health care. A study in 2005 showed that 50% of young athletes did not understand why a genital examination is done. Most were unaware of the risk of testicular cancer and did not appreciate the difference in urgency of seeking medical treatment of painless versus painful testicular swelling. Routine male genitourinary examination during the preparticipation physical evaluation, including testicular and hernia evaluation, is recommended by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine. This is somewhat concerning because in 2008 the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) made a recommendation against routine screening for testicular cancer in asymptomatic adolescents and adults based on the lack of written evidence that it helps. The USPSTF consensus has been that screening does not provide any benefit over current case-finding practices i.e. when a young man may feel a lump in his testicle and/or have pain. The problem is that Dr Congeni and colleagues from Akron, Ohio showed in 2005 that no more than 15% of athletes correctly differentiated the urgency of seeking medical treatment of painless versus painful testicular swelling. 34% still reported they would delay seeking medical care for painful testicular swelling. Only 38% knew that young men had the highest risk of testicular cancer. The majority believed older men to have the highest risk. This highlights the problem completely and stresses the need for improved education in junior high schools and upwards, as well as in sports teams and government and recreational health policy groups. This is very concerning because self exams are free and testicular cancer is very treatable if detected early. In the face of poor evidence, we strongly encourage adolescents and young men to continue to perform self exams until the issue has strong evidence to support that screening is not needed. Lance Armstrong is a classic example of someone who left it too late and had spread of his testicular cancer into his belly, lungs and even brain. He was lucky to have survived. Now he promotes “Livestrong” but and he should also promote “Live Smart”. The added issue in testicular cancer treatment is that the later the diagnosis, the more aggressive the treatment with not only removal of the testicle but also abdominal, lung and brain surgery and chemotherapy. All have an increased risk of effecting later fertility. The more aggressive the treatment beyond removal of a testicle, the more risk of damaging later fertility permanently. Genital injuries during sports have been described mostly in case studies. However, The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) showed that between 1990 and 2000, 883 sports-related genital injuries occurred in males less than 26 years old requiring emergency department evaluation. Blunt trauma (such as being hit by a bat, ball or hockey puck in the genitals without breaking though the skin) accounts for approximately 85% of injuries, and penetrating trauma (punctures the skin and underlying organs) accounts for 15%. Blunt testicular injuries can be managed with either observation or immediate surgery depending on the situation. Early surgery intervention for blunt trauma is associated with testicles more likely to be saved. Most blunt trauma to the testicles is minor and usually requires only conservative therapy. However, the injury can be underestimated and up to nearly half of patients presenting with blunt scrotal trauma in one study underwent surgery and were found to have rupture of the testicle. The NEISS showed that serious injuries to the genital area were most commonly seen with baseball, followed by basketball and football. Approximately 20% of emergency department visits for sports-related genital trauma had a risk of permanent injury, and up to 7% resulted in staying in the hospital overnight or transfer to a more comprehensive trauma center. Football had the highest risk of resulting in hospitalization or transfer to a trauma center for genital injury. Interesting the risk of genital injury in baseball was 1 in 383 versus 1 in 669 in football and 1 in 799 in basketball. When it comes to protection against injury, a study in 2005 showed that 47% of males playing sports did not wear genital protection during sports. Overall, only 33% of football players wore a cup versus 78% of baseball players. There are no clear statements or recommendations by any medical organizations on the issue. Protection is recommended and common sense prevails on the degree of contact involved and protection needed with certain sports more than others being high risk (e.g. football, ice hockey and baseball) as well as certain positions such as goalie and catcher. Overall, cups are often not worn by players due to the relative uncomfortable nature of the device during fast motion sports. This is an important focus of public awareness in this discussion and coaches, local recreational committees as well as college and professional leagues need to educate players on these simple means to prevent injuries by wearing their cups. Other sports or fitness activities like bicycle riding or spinning may result in testicular pain. Repeated and/or prolonged bike riding without coming off the seat and remaining in a forward leaning aerodynamic position may cause numbness of the groin and in some cases affect the ability to get and maintain an erection. All these issues can potentially compromise male reproductive health especially with repeated trauma. Extreme sports like skate boarding to BMX and motor cross have been associated with urological injuries especially straddle injuries and damage to the male urethra which can result in strictures (narrowing) which make urinating and ejaculation difficult. Even recreational sports such as paintballing have resulted in testicular fractures and hospitalization. Excess exercise may represent a physical stress that challenges the body at several levels. The beneficial effects of exercise are well known, but there is evidence of exercise-related short- and long-term consequences concerning male reproductive function – such as hormonal disturbances or effects directly on the testicles. Sperm and erectile function can be affected. Training intensity, duration and type of exercise as well as level of fitness of individuals will influence these effects. Current research overall has not been conclusive. It is important that physicians and the general public pay attention to exercise as a possible cause of male infertility and be precautionary until future research has thoroughly elucidated this relationship. Other injuries such as neck injuries/spinal cord injuries and concussions from high contact sports like football are not rare and associated with a number of health issues, with some of the most extreme being inability to move arms and/or walk (paraplegia and quadriplegia). All these issues can affect fertility, ejaculation and erections. This brings up the issue of neck supports and of course helmets that have been discussed more recently in connection with concussion risk/injuries. This is another extension of the same issue. All these issues do not take into account other effects of sports on male reproduction such as the abuse of anabolic steroids. This is the focus of a separate topic in this series. Overall, sporting activities highlight the need to discuss men’s health issues at preparticipation physicals at all levels but also in schools from an early age. Sports also highlight the need to re-iterate education and enforcing protection of the male genitals. At present there is a lack of adequate information provided to young men and also inadequate technology to make such protection comfortable to wear. More work is needed to educate sports equipment companies and sporting leagues of the importance of this issue. Great advances have been made with bike seats through better knowledge and health promotion, now it is time to improve other genital protection. We urge boys and men who participate in sports on a regular basis to help and educate themselves to ensure a successful reproductive life and good long term men’s health.
Dr. Ajay Nangia along with a large group of scientists at the University of Kansas Medical Center are advancing the treatment of men with male infertility especially unexplained cases with better insight into the reasons for the infertility problem. The Center for Idiopathic Male Infertility has been develooped at the University of Kansas Medical Center. They hope to correct the problems that men have with their fertility and achieve a pregnancy and allow couples to achieve a pregnancy without need for assisted reproduction if possible or to make the quality and function of the sperm better to more likely achieve a pregnancy if assisted reproduction is needed. Dr. Nangia is a leading member in the field of male infertility on a regional (Kansas, Missouri and the Midwest) and national level and will be able to advise couples on all the latest information in the filed of male infertility and best advise couples of options and alternatives. He recently was a member of the Best Practice Statement in Male Infertility prepared by the American Urological Association and will be happy to discuss current standards of care in the field of male reproduction and infertility, along with new testing techniques and their limitations. Treatment options need to be determined after thorough evaluation of both the history and also careful examination.
Recently, the WHO (World Health Organization) updated their guidelines for normal semen analysis to define fertility. View this methodology, study and findings.