OFF-Time - time when the medication is not working to its full potential and symptoms are not well controlled. This can be predictable such as wearing off between doses when symptoms return at the end of one dose before the next dose is taken; or this can be unpredictable where medication suddenly loses its effect or when a particular dose of medication does not take effect.
A 12-week Randomized Study to Evaluate Oral Istradefylline in Subjects With Moderate to Severe Parkinson's Disease (KW-6002)
Purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of oral Istradefylline (KW-6002) in patients with moderate to severe Parkinson's Disease who are already on Levodopa/Carbidopa or Levodopa/Benserazide therapy.
Duration: 12 weeks
Study design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled
30 years of age or older.
On levodopa therapy for at least 1 year with beneficial clinical response at the baseline visit.
Taking at least 400mg levodopa combination daily and on stable regimen of any other anti-Parkinsonian drugs (MAO-B, COMT, DA) for at least 2 weeks prior to randomization.
Stable dopaminergic regimen for at least 4 weeks immediately prior to randomization.
Documented end-of-dose wearing-off and levodopa-induced dyskinesia.
Have an average of two hours of OFF time per day.
Subjects on apomorphine and/or dopamine receptor antagonists or direct gastrointestinal levodopa infusion.
Subject who have had neurosurgical operation for PD.
Subjects who smoke > 5 cigarettes/day
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease (INTREPID)
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of Boston Scientific's Vercise Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) system in the treatment of patients with with advanced, levodopa-responsive bilateral Parkinson's disease (PD) which is not adequately controlled with medication.
Duration: 52 weeks
Study Design: Randomized, Double Blind, Active Comparator (Medium continuous dose of stimulation), Sham Comparator (Low intermittent dose of stimulation)
Diagnosis of bilateral idiopathic PD (H&Y ≥ 2) with a duration of PD ≥ 5 years.
Persistent disabling Parkinson's disease symptoms or drug side effects (e.g., dyskinesias, motor fluctuations, or disabling "off" periods) despite optimal medical therapy.
Any intracranial abnormality or medical condition that would contraindicate DBS surgery.
Have any significant psychiatric condition likely to compromise the subject's ability to comply with requirements of the study protocol
Any other active implanted devices including neurostimulators and /or drug delivery pumps
Any previous thalamotomy, pallidotomy or subjects who have undergone a DBS procedure.
Have any significant medical condition that is likely to interfere with study procedures or likely to confound evaluation of study endpoints.