Research projects of some faculty members include integrative physiology studies of the mechanisms that regulate the interaction of the various organ systems. This area includes experiments in intact animals as well as in cellular preparations. Current research includes intravital microscopy studies of the mechanisms of microvascular injury under various conditions, and studies on the role of reactive oxygen species on the electrical properties of isolated cardiac cells. The effect of prolonged environmental oxygen deprivation on oxygen transport from atmosphere to cells is studied in intact, conscious animals. The mechanics of muscle diaphragm contraction in health and disease is studied in vivo. Research in cell membrane physiology includes study of plasma membrane transporters such as Na,K-ATPase and its isozymes in various cell expression systems, studies on fluid transport in normal and abnormal renal epithelia, and the effects of photomodification on transmembrane ion exchangers. Techniques for basic research and clinical diagnosis are being developed to describe the microstructure of soft tissues in vivo.