2012 Publications


Jeevanantham V, Chughtai H, Little, WC, Morgan T, Kitzman DW, Hamilton CA, Hundley WG.Aging Reduces Left Atrial Performance during Adrenergic Stress in Middle Aged and Older Patients. Cardiol J. 2012;19(1):45-52.

Sloan K, Vacek JL. Treatment of Dyslipidemia. J Clin Metabolism and Diabetes. 2012; 3:21-24.

Zimmerman SK, Vacek JL. Dyslipidemia: A review of pathophysiology and lipoprotein disorders. J Clin Metabolism and Diabetes. 2012;2:41-48.

Kramer J, Howard P, Barnes B, Ababneh A, Mukhopadhyay P, Biria M, Muehlebach GF, Daon E, Zorn GL, Reed WA, Vacek JL. Secondary prevention following coronary artery bypass surgery: a pilot study for improved patient education. International Journal of Clinical Medicine 2012, 3, 286-294.

Abu-El-Haija B, Ababneh B, Vacek JL. Coronary Artery Calcification Score and Computed Tomographic Coronary Angiography: A Review and Update. Open Atherosclerosis & Thrombosis Journal, 2012;5: 22-28.

Wiley M, Kumar A, Vacek J. Review - Peripheral Arterial Disease. Consultant 2012; 52:601-610.

Stein AB, Bolli R, Dawn B, Sanganalmath SK, Zhu Y, Wang OL, Guo Y, Motterlini R, Xuan YT. Carbon monoxide induces a late preconditioning-mimetic cardioprotective and antiapoptotic milieu in the myocardium. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012 Jan;52(1):228-36.

Steffen K, Zorn GT 3rd, Tadros P, Gupta K. Role of hybrid endovascular suite in improving outcomes of surgical ligation of coronary artery fistula. J Invasive Cardiol. 2012 Jan;24(1):E10-2.

Chehab B, Vamanan K, Gupta K. Percutaneous treatment of severe diffuse stenosis in heavily calcified infrarenal abdominal aorta using iliac extender endoprosthesis: a case series. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2012 Feb 15;79(3):439-43.

Vacek JL, Vanga SR, Good M, Lai SM, Lakkireddy D, Howard PA. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation and relation to cardiovascular health. Am J Cardiol. 2012 Feb 1;109(3):359-63.

Patel VB, Vacek JL, Graves L, Bhattacharya RK. Calcium affects on vascular endpoints. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012 Mar 27;9:24.

Lakkireddy D, Reddy YM, Di Biase L, Vanga SR, Santangeli P, Swarup V, Pimentel R, Mansour MC, D'Avila A, Sanchez JE, Burkhardt JD, Chalhoub F, Mohanty P, Coffey J, Shaik N, Monir G, Reddy VY, Ruskin J, Natale A. Feasibility and safety of dabigatran versus warfarin for periprocedural anticoagulation in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation: results from a multicenter prospective registry. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Mar 27;59(13):1168-74.

Thapa R, Dawn B, Nath J. Tricuspid regurgitation: pathophysiology and management. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2012 Apr;14(2):190-9.

Vanga SR, Bommana S, Kroll M, Lakkireddy D. Impedance changes on defibrillation coils after atrial fibrillation ablation: lead damage or electromechanical interference? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2012 Jun;35(6):e163-6.

Jeevanantham V, Butler M, Saad A, Abdel-Latif A, Zuba-Surma EK, Dawn B. Adult bone marrow cell therapy improves survival and induces long-term improvement in cardiac parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2012 Jul 31;126(5):551-68.

Di Biase L, Santangeli P, Burkhardt DJ, Bai R, Mohanty P, Carbucicchio C,Dello Russo A, Casella M, Mohanty S, Pump A, Hongo R, Beheiry S, Pelargonio G,Santarelli P, Zucchetti M, Horton R, Sanchez JE, Elayi CS, Lakkireddy D, Tondo C,Natale A. Endo-epicardial homogenization of the scar versus limited substrate ablation for the treatment of electrical storms in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Jul 10;60(2):132-41.

Reddy YM, Lakkireddy D. QRS morphology is equally important! J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Aug 28;60(9):873; author reply 873-4.

Bunch TJ, Mahapatra S, Madhu Reddy Y, Lakkireddy D. The role of percutaneous left ventricular assist devices during ventricular tachycardia ablation. Europace. 2012 Aug;14 Suppl 2:ii26-ii32.

Santangeli P, Dello Russo A, Pieroni M, Casella M, Di Biase L, Burkhardt JD, Sanchez J, Lakkireddy D, Carbucicchio C, Zucchetti M, Pelargonio G, Themistoclakis S, Camporeale A, Rossillo A, Beheiry S, Hongo R, Bellocci F, Tondo C, Natale A. Fragmented and delayed electrograms within fibrofatty scar predict arrhythmic events in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: results from a prospective risk stratification study. Heart Rhythm. 2012 Aug;9(8):1200-6.

Kroll MW, Walcott GP, Ideker RE, Graham MA, Calkins H, Lakkireddy D, Luceri RM, Panescu D. The stability of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation.Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012 Aug;2012:6377-81.

Kroll MW, Fish RM, Lakkireddy D, Luceri RM, Panescu D. Essentials of low-power electrocution: Established and speculated mechanisms. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012 Aug;2012:5734-40.

Kroll MW, Fish RM, Calkins H, Halperin H, Lakkireddy D, Panescu D. Defibrillation success rates for electrically-induced fibrillation: Hair of the dog. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012 Aug;2012:689-93.

Boolani H, Reddy YM, Ittaman S, Lakkireddy D. Recurrent unilateral pleural effusion in a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patient secondary to atrial arrhythmias and the role of radiofrequency ablation. Europace. 2012 Sep;14(9):1371-2.

Vallakati A, Sharma A, Lakkireddy D. Antiarrhythmic drug treatment after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Lancet. 2012 Oct 27;380(9852):1467-8; author reply 1468.

Lakkireddy D, Di Biase L, Ryschon K, Biria M, Swarup V, Reddy YM, Verma A, Bommana S, Burkhardt D, Dendi R, Dello Russo A, Casella M, Carbucicchio C, Tondo C, Dawn B, Natale A. Radiofrequency ablation of premature ventricular ectopy improves the efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy in nonresponders. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Oct 6; 60(16):1531-9.

Santangeli P, Di Biase L, Bai R, Mohanty S, Pump A, Cereceda Brantes M, Horton R, Burkhardt JD, Lakkireddy D, Reddy YM, Casella M, Dello Russo A, Tondo C, Natale A. Atrial fibrillation and the risk of incident dementia: a meta-analysis. Heart Rhythm. 2012 Nov;9(11):1761-8.

Pillarisetti J, Gupta K. Massive pulmonary embolism with shock: role of thrombolysis using central venous access. J Invasive Cardiol. 2012 Dec;24(12):E321-4.

Flaherty MP, Kamerzell TJ, Dawn B. Wnt signaling and cardiac differentiation. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2012;111:153-74.

Simmons A, Pimentel R, Lakkireddy D. Sudden cardiac death in women. Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2012;13(1):e37-42. Review.

Perrotta L, Xhaferi B, Chiostri M, Pieragnoli P, Ricciardi G, Di Biase L,Natale A, Ricceri I, Biria M, Lakkireddy D, Valleggi A, Emdin M, Michelotti F,Mascioli G, Pandozi A, Santini M, Padeletti L. Effects of smoking in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy. Intern Emerg Med. 2012 Dec 19.

Dupont M, Shrestha K, Singh D, et al. Lack of significant renal tubular injury despite acute kidney injury in acute decompensated heart failure. European journal of heart failure. 2012;14(6):597-604.

Kumbhani DJ, Shishehbor MH, Willis JM, Karim S, Singh D, et al. Influence of Gender on Long-Term Mortality in Patients Presenting With Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. The American journal of cardiology. 2012;109(8):1087-1091.

Shrestha K, Shao Z, Singh D, Dupont M, Tang W. Relation of systemic and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels to different aspects of impaired renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. The American journal of cardiology. 2012.


Patel V, Graves L, Vacek J, Bhattacharya RK. 2012 Calcium Supplementation and Cardiovascular Events. J Bone Miner Res 27 (Suppl 1).Available at http://www.asbmr.org/Meetings/AnnualMeeting/AbstractDetail.aspx?aid=842e10ae-81a3-4db4-8c52-b35fc3069dbf. Accessed September 16, 2013.Chosen for ASBMR Young Investigator Award.

Chehab B, Jeevanantham V, Nagavalli S, Austria E, Shrivastava R, Wiley M, Tadros P, Nath J, Dawn B, Gupta K. Two Methods of Calculating Ankle Brachial Index: Differences in Prediction of Peripheral Arterial Disease Burden. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(13s1):E2127-E2127. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(12)62128-7.

Chehab B, Jeevanantham V, Saad A, Vacek J, Gupta K, Dawn B, Tadros P, Wiley M. Feasibility, Safety, and Outcomes with a Coronary Pressure Wire System used for the Assessment of Severe Aortic Stenosis.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(13s1):E134-E134. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(12)60135-1.

Reddy M, Boolani H, Duthuluru S, Reddy N, Williamson T, Spikes L, Bommana S, Atkins D, Chikkam V, Pillarisetti J, Berenbom L, Dendi R, Emert M, Pimentel R, Lakkireddy D. Complications of Implantable Cardiac-Defibrillator Implantation in Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(13s1):E708-E708. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(12)60709-8.

Reddy M, Mansour M, Chalhoub F, Di Biase L, Tung R, Swarup V, Mahapatra S, Bunch T, Chinitz L, Boolani H, Reddy N, Bommana S, Atkins D, Dendi R, Shivkumar K, Natale A, Ruskin J, Lakkireddy D. Impact of Low Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction on Mortality After Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation: A Multicenter Experience. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(13s1):E627-E627. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(12)60628-7.

Reddy M, Mahapatra S, Mansour M, Bunch T, Swarup V, Chinitz L, Di Biase L, Boolani H, Pillarisetti J, Reddy N, Bommana S, Atkins D, Dendi R, Natale A, Lakkireddy D. Role of Percutaneous Left Ventricular Assist Devices in Unstable Ventricular Arrhythmia Ablation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(13s1):E626-E626. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(12)60627-5.

Reddy M, Di Biase L, Mansour M, Boolani H, Bunch T, Day J, Bommana S, Atkins D, Dixit S, Natale A, Ruskin J, Lakkireddy D. Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation Involving Pulmonary Vein Stumps in Patients With Prior Lung Resection.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(13s1):E689-E689. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(12)60690 .

Boolani H, Reddy M, Duthuluru S, Williamson T, Spikes L, Reddy N, Bommana S, Atkins D, Pillarisetti J, Dawn B, Nath J, Lakkireddy D. Pericardial Effusions in Pulmonary Hypertension: Presentation, Predictors & Outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(13s1):E1599-E1599. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(12)61600-3.

Santangeli P, Di Biase L, Burkhardt JD, Horton R, Sanchez J, Bailey S, Zagrodzky J, Lakkireddy D, Bai R, Mohanty P, Mohanty S, Beheiry S, Hongo R, Natale A. Progression of atrial fibrillation after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects: Successful tratment with rediofrequency catheter ablation.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(13s1):E837-E837. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(12)60838-9 

Alla V, Koneru S, Reddy M, Fernandes J, Lakkireddy D, Hunter C, Mooss A.Delayed contrast enhancement on cardiac MRI and risk of clinically significant ventricular arrhythmias in Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A META-ANALYSIS OF OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(13s1):E1226-E1226. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(12)61226-1.

Di Biase L, Santangeli P, Bai R, Canby R, Zagrodzky J, Mohanty P, Sanchez J, Horton R, Gallinghouse J, Mohanty S,  Pump A, Price L, Metz T, Thomas B, Bailey S, Hongo R, Beheiry S, Vanga SR,Lakkireddy D,  Burkhardt JD, Elayi CS, Casella M, Russo AD, Tondo C, Natale A.Prevalence of peri-procedural pulmonary edema in patients with and without heart failure undegoing atrial fibrillation ablation: The importance of the optivol index in predicting peri-procedural events.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(13s1):E725-E725. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(12)60726-8.

Cheng G, Yang Y, Girgis M, Davani A, Quinn CM, Elias H, Hauptman J,  Dawn B.Cardiac-specific transgenic inhibition of NF-KB activation protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(13s1):E546-E546. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(12)60547-6.

Pillarisetti J, Biria M, Reddy M, Atkins D, Pimentel R, Berenbom L, Emert M, Dendi R, Reddy N, Murray C, Bommana S, Dawn B, Lakkireddy D. Impact of Pocket Revision on the Rate of Infection and Other Complications in Patients Requiring Pocket Manipulation for Generator Replacement and/or Lead Replacement or Revision (MAKE IT CLEAN): A Prospective Randomized Study. Heart Rhythm, 2012;9(5):S25.

Reddy M, Boolani H, Swarup V, Bunch J, Day J, Doshi S, Di Biase L, Bai R, Horton R, Atkins D, Bommana S, Mansour M, Natale A, Ruskin J, Lakkireddy D. Atrial Fibrillation Ablation in Patients With Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion Device.Heart Rhythm, 2012;9(5):S468.

Reddy M, Mansour M, Boolani H, Di Biase L, Burkhardt D, Shivkumar K, Dendi R, Atkins D, Bommana S, Tung R, Swarup V, Day J, Bunch J, Mahapatra S, Ruskin J, Natale A, Lakkireddy D. Graded Effect Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction on Outcomes of Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation: A Multicenter Experience.Heart Rhythm, 2012;9(5):S84.

 Di Biase L, Santangelli P, Mohanty P,Burkhardt JD,Sanchez JE,Massaro R,Potenza D, Pelargonio G,Lakkireddy D, Reddy M, Forleo G,  Bai R, Mohanty S, Pump A,Elayi CS,Rossillo A, Themistoklakis S, Raviele A, Beheiry S, Hongo R, Gibson D, Casella M, Russo AD, Tondo C,and Natale A.Amiodarone increases the AF termination during ablation but reduces the long term success rate of  patients undergoing ablation of long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation:Preliminary results form the speculate study. Heart Rhythm, 2012;9(5):S37.

Pump A, Di Biase L, Burkhardt D, Gilbert G, Bai R, Santangeli P, Sanchez J,Horton R, Hongo R,Beheiry S,Mohanty S, Mohanty P, Metz T, Thomas B, Yan R, Lakkireddy D,Reddy M,Tung R,Shivkumar K, and Natale A. Catehter ablation of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy utilizing the magnetic robotic system: Results from a prospective multicenter registry. Heart Rhythm, 2012;9(5):S83.

Santangeli P, Di Biase L,Burkhardt JD, Bai R, Mohanty P,Carbucicchio C, Russo AD, Casella M,Mohanty S,Pump A, Hongo R,Beheiry S,Yan R,Pelargonio G,Santarelli P,  Zucchetti M, Horton R,Sanchez J,  Lakkireddy D,Elayi C, Tondo C, and  Natale A, MD.Endo-Epicardial homogenization of the scar abolishes the periprocedural need for mechanical cardiac support and improves longterm outcomes of hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia ablation. Heart Rhythm, 2012;9(5):S354-355.  

Di Biase L,Santangeli P, Burkhardt JD, Bai R, Mohanty P,Carbucicchio C, Russo AD, Casella M, Mohanty S, Pump A,Gilbert G,Metz T,Yan R, Hongo R, Beheiry S,Pelargonio G,Santarelli P,Zucchetti M, Horton R, Sanchez JE, Elayi CS,Lakkireddy D, Tondo C,and Natale A. Endo-Epicardial homogenization of the scar versus limited endocardial substrate ablation for the treatment of electrical storms in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy:Longterm outcomes and mode of recurrences.Heart Rhythm, 2012;9(5):S354.

Di Biase L,Santangeli P,Mohanty P,Burkhardt JD, Sanchez JE,Gallinghouse GJ, Zagrodsky J,Bailey S, Bai R, Mohanty S,Pump A, Horton R, Hongo R,Beheiry S,Lewis WR,Russo AD,Casella M,Fassini G,Reddy M, Lakkireddy D,Innocenti E, Colombo D, Izzo G, Tondo C. Is it safe not to perform TEE in patients undergoing AF ablation while on "THERAPEUTIC" Coumadin? Result from a prospective multicenter registry. Heart Rhythm, 2012;9(5):S198.

Thangavel J, Dawn B, and  Rajasingh J.Reprogramming of Human Somatic Cells Into Cardiomyocytes. Circulation.2012;126:A11107.

Cheng G, Girgis M, Davani A, Chen L, Elias H, Yang Y, Sanganalmath SK, Quinn CM, and  Dawn B .The Absence of C/EBP Homologous Protein Improves Left Ventricular Remodeling After a Reperfused Myocardial Infarction. Circulation. 2012;126:A13727

Sridhar AR, Patel DB, Oommen CJ, Jeevanantham V, and Dawn B.Trends in Utilization of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy and Gender Differences in the US - Results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2002-2009.Circulation.2012;126:A14672

Sridhar AR, Patel DB, Jeevanantham V, and Dawn B.Temporal Trends in Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Utilization and Persistent Gender Disparities - Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 1997-2009.Circulation. 2012;126:A17746

Xuan Y, Zhu Y, Wang O, Cheng G, Elias H, Davani A, Yang Y,Girgis M, Vincent RJ, Hauptman J, and Dawn B.STAT3 Activation Prevents Mesenchymal Stem Cell Apoptosis and Improves Infarct Repair. Circulation. 2012;126:A12591

Zuba-Surma EK, Xuan Y, Labedz-Maslowska A, Elias H, Kamycka E, Abdel-Latif A, Zhu Y, Wang O, Davani A, and Dawn B.Greater Antiapoptotic, Antiinflammatory, and Proangiogenic Attributes of a Defined Subpopulation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells May Facilitate Cardiac Repair via Paracrine Effects. Circulation. 2012;126:A12650

Thangavel J, Dawn B, and Rajasingh J .Effects of Epigenetic Modifiers on Lps-induced Enos/rho Signaling And Restoration of Adherens Junction Integrity and Endothelial Barrier Protection.  Circulation. 2012;126:A11114

Chen L, Xuan Y, Elias H, Cantilena A, Zuba-Surma E, Davani A, Cheng G, Wang O, Vincent RJ, Yang Y, and  Dawn B .The Activation of STAT3 via CamKII is Critical for the Induction of Cardiac Differentiation by Wnt11 in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells.Circulation. 2012;126:A12638

Reddy M, Janga P, Pamulapati H,  Bommana S, Kretsinger H, Reddy C, Barnds B, Reddy N, Atkins D, and Lakkireddy D.Impact of Cavotricuspid Isthmus Dependent Right Atrial Flutter Ablation on the Incidence and Recurrence of Atrial Fibrillation. Circulation. 2012;126:A18990

Reddy M, Chaung J, Boolani H, Atrouni W, Atkins D, Bommana S, Pimentel R, Emert M, Berenbom L, Vacek J, Lakkireddy D, and  Dendi R. Long-term Mortality After Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Infection. Circulation. 2012;126:A17922

Reddy M, Boolani H, Sharma S, Bakhtiani R, Duthuluri S, Reddy N, Atkins D,  Bommana S, Vacek J, Nath J, Gupta K, Dawn B, and Lakkireddy D.Incidence, Predictors and Clinical Course of Atrial Tachyarrhythmias in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Circulation. 2012;126:A17933

Reddy M, Berenbom L, Reddy N, Atkins D, Bhaktiani R, Bommana S, Pimentel R, Emert M, Dendi R, and Lakkireddy D. Increasing Complexity of Sprint Fidelis Lead  Extraction: A Single Center Experience.Circulation. 2012;126:A17906

Reddy M, Biria M, Subramanyam P, Pillarisetti J,  Boolani H, Reddy N,  Atkins D, and Lakkireddy D. Epicardial Left Ventricular Lead Placement: Unfavorable Lead Location and Impact on Clinical Response.Circulation. 2012;126:A19740

Santangeli P, Di Biase L, Horton R, Sanchez J, Burkhardt JD, Bai R, Bailey S, Pump A, Trivedi C, Mohanty S, Beheiry S, Hongo R, Lewis WR, Reddy YM, Lakkireddy D, and  Natale A.Switching Between New Oral Anticoagulants and Warfarin in Patients Undergoing Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation: Safety and Outcomes. Circulation.2012;126:A15832

Di Biase L, Santangeli P, Burkhardt JD, Bai R, Mohanty P, Mohanty S, Pump A, Trivedi C, Yan R, Price J, Sanchez JE, Gallinghouse GJ, Beheiry S, Hongo R, Bailey SM, Horton R, Zagrodzky JD, Reddy M, Lakkireddy D, Carbucicchio C, Casella M, Russo AD, Tondo C, and Natale A.Prevalence Distribution and Response to Endocardial Ablation of Abnormal Epicardial Recordings in Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy.Circulation. 2012;126:A15010.

Bassem Chehab, Vinodh Jeevanantham, Andre Saad,Matthew Bulter, James Vacek, Thomas Rosamond,Kamal Gupta, M.D., Buddhadeb Dawn, Peter Tadros, Mark Wiley, Normal Coronary Anatomic Variants Influence False Positive Results of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, 2012;79(S1):S40-S41.

Dupont M, Finucan M, Shrestha K, Singh D, Tang W. Lack of Concordance between Worsening Renal Function Defined by Rise in Creatinine Versus Rise in Cystatin C. Journal of cardiac failure. 2012;18(8):S27-S28.

Dupont M, Shrestha K, Singh D, et al. Stable Plasma Myeloperoxidase Levels during Treatment of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Despite Decongestion and a Decrease in B-Type Natriuretic Peptide. Journal of cardiac failure. 2012;18(8):S28-S29.

Dupont M, Shrestha K, Singh D, Finucan M, Tang W. Admission Values of Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin, Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and Interleukin-18 Do Not Predict Worsening Renal Function. Journal of cardiac failure. 2012;18(8):S28.

Last modified: Apr 30, 2014