Even the most sophisticated technology cannot mimic the complicated interactions among cells, tissues and organs that occur in humans and animals.
The results obtained from experiments using animals provide information critical to designing human trials that must be conducted before legal approval can be granted for new devices, drugs or procedures. Scientists can gauge the effects of a new drug or procedure in a whole biological system before its use in humans. This is crucial for scientific as well as ethical reasons.
Since many studies require that researchers know the genetic history and specific traits of the animals, most animals used in research are specially bred for that purpose. While there are important alternatives to the use of animals in research being pursued at KUMC — such as computer modeling or cell structure systems — none of them can fully simulate the complexity of the living organism.
KUMC follows the highest standards of animal care and treatment for both humane and scientific reasons. The scientific community advocates the highest quality of care of research animals for two main reasons:
First, those animals that are helping science unlock the mysteries of disease deserve respect and the best possible care. Secondly, a well-cared-for animal provides more reliable result.
When live animals are used in research or biological testing, there must be a reasonable expectation that such utilization will contribute to the enhancement of human or animal health, the advancement of knowledge, or the good of society. The relative value of the study is a particularly important consideration in potentially painful experiments where there is an ethical imperative that the benefits of the research clearly outweigh any pain, discomfort, and distress that might be experienced by the animals.
It is recognized that in many research protocols there is simply no alternative to the use of live animals. Despite this social imperative for animal experimentation, all investigators have an ethical obligation to explore ways in which animals can be partially or totally replaced by other biological or mathematical/computer systems. When a research question can be pursued using reasonably available non-animal or in vitro models and still result in sound scientific conclusions, the investigator should choose these alternatives
Selection of an appropriate animal model is an important consideration, particularly at a time when alternative models for animal research are being emphasized. It is the investigator's responsibility, therefore, to select the optimal species for a particular project. In addition, the number of animals utilized in a protocol should be minimized consistent with sound scientific and statistical standards. It is also the investigator's responsibility to consider the source of the animal and ensure that all animals used for experimental purposes are lawfully acquired.
When animals are used in a research project the investigator has an ethical obligation to seek the least painful techniques feasible that will allow the protocol objective (s) to be pursued adequately. If a procedure has associated pain, discomfort, or distress, it is imperative that the investigator estimate the probable occurrence, magnitude, and duration of the pain, discomfort, or distress in order to adequately plan for the treatment of pain.
In potentially painful procedures the investigator must take all necessary steps to assess and monitor pain as well as discomfort and distress. In assessing pain the investigator should use behavioral signs based on the normal behavior pattern of the species under study. In some circumstances , physiological parameters may be used (e.g., plasma cortisol,catecholamines, white blood cell counts, and cardiovascular parameters).
If a procedure will cause more than momentary slight pain or distress to the animal, the pain must be minimized both in intensity and duration through the administration of appropriate anesthetics, analgesics, and tranquilizers consistent with acceptable standards of veterinary medicine. It should be emphasized that the requirement for the alleviation/reduction of pain applies not only at the time the procedure is being conducted but also following the procedure until such time when the pain is either alleviated or reduced to an acceptable tolerance level.
In no case should potentially painful experiments be conducted on an awake animal while under the influence of a paralytic or curarizing drug without the concomitant use of an appropriate anesthetic.
Research in which painful stimuli are used should be so designed as to provide a means of escape from that pain by the animal.
It is recognized that in certain research protocols the administration of appropriate anesthetics and/or analgesics will compromise the scientific validity of the experiment. Such experiments must be justifiable in terms of scientific design and value, and the deletion of these drugs should be based on referenceable scientific fact or experimental data and not intuition. In addition, pain, discomfort, and distress levels should be carefully monitored. There is a limitation on the pain to which an experimental animal may be exposed. Investigators should choose the earliest possible end_point in order to minimize pain and discomfort. An animal that is observed to be in a state of severe pain that cannot be alleviated or reduced to an acceptable tolerance level should be immediately euthanized.
No animal should be subjected to multiple survival surgeries, except when they are interrelated and essential to the primary research objective.
Physical restraint procedures should be used on awake animals only after alternative procedures have been considered and found to be inadequate. When restraint is utilized the animal should be trained or conditioned to the restraining device, using positive reinforcement, prior to the beginning of the experiment. The restraining device should provide the minimum restraint consistent with the maximum security and comfort of the animal. In addition, the restraining device should provide the animal with the greatest possible opportunity to assume its normal postural adjustments. Awake animals should not be subjected to prolonged physical restraint.
It is the responsibility of the investigator to ensure that adequate post-surgical/procedural care is provided to all animals This care must meet acceptable standards in veterinary medicine and be provided as long as necessary, including during non-duty hours.
Euthanasia is the act of inducing painless death. The proposed method of euthanasia must be consistent with recommendations of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Panel on Euthanasia. If an animal will not be subjected to euthanasia at the completion of a research protocol, it is the responsibility of the investigator to ensure that the final disposition of the animal is both humane and acceptable.
Procedures involving the use of animals should be performed by or under the immediate supervision of an individual with the appropriate qualifications and experience relative to the procedures to be carried out on live animals.