Adult Stem Cells in Diabetes


A preliminary evaluation of efficacy and safety of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Liu X, Zheng P, Wang X, Dai G, Cheng H, Zhang Z, Hua R, Niu X, Shi J, An Y.
Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014 Apr 23;5(2):57. [Epub ahead of print]

Targeting insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes via immune modulation of cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SCs) in stem cell educator therapy: phase I/II clinical trial.
Zhao Y, Jiang Z, Zhao T, Ye M, Hu C, Zhou H, Yin Z, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Wang S, Shen J, Thaker H, Jain S, Li Y, Diao Y, Chen Y, Sun X, Fisk MB, Li H.
BMC Med. 2013 Jul 9;11:160. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-160.

Autologous umbilical cord blood infusion followed by oral docosahexaenoic acid and vitamin D supplementation for C-peptide preservation in children with Type 1 diabetes.
Haller MJ, Wasserfall CH, Hulme MA, Cintron M, Brusko TM, McGrail KM, Wingard JR, Theriaque DW, Shuster JJ, Ferguson RJ, Kozuch M, Clare-Salzler M, Atkinson MA, Schatz DA.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2013 Jul;19(7):1126-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.04.011. Epub 2013 Apr 20.

Long term effects of the implantation of Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells from the umbilical cord for newly-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Hu J, Yu X, Wang Z, Wang F, Wang L, Gao H, Chen Y, Zhao W, Jia Z, Yan S, Wang Y.
Endocr J. 2013;60(3):347-57. Epub 2012 Nov 16.

Reversal of type 1 diabetes via islet β cell regeneration following immune modulation by cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells.
Zhao Y, Jiang Z, Zhao T, Ye M, Hu C, Yin Z, Li H, Zhang Y, Diao Y, Li Y, Chen Y, Sun X, Fisk MB, Skidgel R, Holterman M, Prabhakar B, Mazzone T.
BMC Med. 2012 Jan 10;10:3. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-3.

Combined islet and hematopoietic stem cell allotransplantation: a clinical pilot trial to induce chimerism and graft tolerance.
Mineo D, Ricordi C, Xu X, Pileggi A, Garcia-Morales R, Khan A, Baidal DA, Han D, Monroy K, Miller J, Pugliese A, Froud T, Inverardi L, Kenyon NS, Alejandro R.
Am J Transplant. 2008 Jun;8(6):1262-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02230.x. Epub 2008 Apr 29.

Quality of life improvement and long-term effects of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transplantation for severe arteriosclerosis obliterans in diabetic patients on dialysis.
Hoshino J, Ubara Y, Hara S, Sogawa Y, Suwabe T, Higa Y, Nakanishi S, Sawa N, Katori H, Takemoto F, Fujimoto Y, Ohta E, Ohara K, Takaichi K.
Circ J. 2007 Aug;71(8):1193-8.

Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation for the treatment of postoperative hand infection with a skin defect in diabetes mellitus: A case report.
Liu Y, Liu Y, Wang P, Tian H, Ai J, Liu Y, Zhou Y, Liu Z, Guo W, Yang S.
Oncol Lett. 2014 Jun;7(6):1857-1862. Epub 2014 Mar 24.



Skin Fibroblasts from Patients with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Can Be Chemically Transdifferentiated into Insulin-Expressing Clusters: A Transgene-Free Approach.
Pereyra-Bonnet F, Gimeno ML, Argumedo NR, Ielpi M, Cardozo JA, Giménez CA, Hyon SH, Balzaretti M, Loresi M, Fainstein-Day P, Litwak LE, Argibay PF.
PLoS One. 2014 Jun 25;9(6):e100369. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100369. eCollection 2014.

Laminin 411 acts as a potent inducer of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells.
Qu H, Liu X, Ni Y, Jiang Y, Feng X, Xiao J, Guo Y, Kong D, Li A, Li X, Zhuang X, Wang Z, Wang Y, Chang Y, Chen S, Kong F, Zhang X, Zhao S, Sun Y, Xu D, Wang D, Zheng C.
J Transl Med. 2014 May 20;12(1):135. doi: 10.1186/1479-5876-12-135.

Autografting of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells alleviates streptozotocin induced diabetes in miniature pigs: real-time tracing with MRI in vivo.
Tang K, Xiao X, Liu D, Shen Y, Chen Y, Wang Y, Li B, Yu F, Ma D, Yan J, Liang H, Yang D, Weng J.
Int J Mol Med. 2014 Jun;33(6):1469-76. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2014.1729. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

Synergistic effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Lian Z, Yin X, Li H, Jia L, He X, Yan Y, Liu N, Wan K, Li X, Lin S.
Ann Dermatol. 2014 Feb;26(1):1-10. doi: 10.5021/ad.2014.26.1.1. Epub 2014 Feb 17.

De novo formation of insulin-producing "neo-β cell islets" from intestinal crypts.
Chen YJ, Finkbeiner SR, Weinblatt D, Emmett MJ, Tameire F, Yousefi M, Yang C, Maehr R, Zhou Q, Shemer R, Dor Y, Li C, Spence JR, Stanger BZ.
Cell Rep. 2014 Mar 27;6(6):1046-58. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.02.013. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

A double mechanism for the mesenchymal stem cells' positive effect on pancreatic islets.
Scuteri A, Donzelli E, Rodriguez-Menendez V, Ravasi M, Monfrini M, Bonandrini B, Figliuzzi M, Remuzzi A, Tredici G.
PLoS One. 2014 Jan 8;9(1):e84309. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084309. eCollection 2014.

Localization of human mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord blood and their role in repair of diabetic foot ulcers in rats.
Zhao QS, Xia N, Zhao N, Li M, Bi CL, Zhu Q, Qiao GF, Cheng ZF.
Int J Biol Sci. 2013 Dec 19;10(1):80-9. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.7237. eCollection 2013.

Mesenchymal stem cell-like cells derived from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells ameliorate diabetic polyneuropathy in mice.
Himeno T, Kamiya H, Naruse K, Cheng Z, Ito S, Kondo M, Okawa T, Fujiya A, Kato J, Suzuki H, Kito T, Hamada Y, Oiso Y, Isobe K, Nakamura J.
Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:259187. doi: 10.1155/2013/259187. Epub 2013 Nov 11.

The effect of in vivo mobilization of bone marrow stem cells on the pancreas of diabetic albino rats (a histological & immunohistochemical study).
Ismail ZM, Kamel AM, Yacoub MF, Aboulkhair AG.
Int J Stem Cells. 2013 May;6(1):1-11.

Immunological characteristics of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and the therapeutic effects of their transplantion on hyperglycemia in diabetic rats.
Wang H, Qiu X, Ni P, Qiu X, Lin X, Wu W, Xie L, Lin L, Min J, Lai X, Chen Y, Ho G, Ma L.
Int J Mol Med. 2014 Feb;33(2):263-70. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2013.1572. Epub 2013 Nov 28.

Generation of functional insulin-producing cells from neonatal porcine liver-derived cells by PDX1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA.
Ham DS, Shin J, Kim JW, Park HS, Cho JH, Yoon KH.
PLoS One. 2013 Nov 15;8(11):e79076. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079076. eCollection 2013.

Human urine-derived stem cells alone or genetically-modified with FGF2 Improve type 2 diabetic erectile dysfunction in a rat model.
Ouyang B, Sun X, Han D, Chen S, Yao B, Gao Y, Bian J, Huang Y, Zhang Y, Wan Z, Yang B, Xiao H, Songyang Z, Liu G, Zhang Y, Deng C.
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 24;9(3):e92825. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092825. eCollection 2014.

Correction of diabetic erectile dysfunction with adipose derived stem cells modified with the vascular endothelial growth factor gene in a rodent diabetic model.
Liu G, Sun X, Bian J, Wu R, Guan X, Ouyang B, Huang Y, Xiao H, Luo D, Atala A, Zhang Y, Deng C.
PLoS One. 2013 Aug 30;8(8):e72790. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072790. eCollection 2013.

Endothelial progenitor cells are related to glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes over time.
Hörtenhuber T, Rami-Mehar B, Satler M, Nagl K, Höbaus C, Höllerl F, Koppensteiner R, Schernthaner G, Schober E, Schernthaner GH.
Diabetes Care. 2013 Jun;36(6):1647-53. doi: 10.2337/dc12-1206. Epub 2013 Jan 22.

A novel autologous cell-based therapy to promote diabetic wound healing.
Castilla DM, Liu ZJ, Tian R, Li Y, Livingstone AS, Velazquez OC.
Ann Surg. 2012 Oct;256(4):560-72. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e31826a9064.

The adult mouse and human pancreas contain rare multipotent stem cells that express insulin.
Smukler SR, Arntfield ME, Razavi R, Bikopoulos G, Karpowicz P, Seaberg R, Dai F, Lee S, Ahrens R, Fraser PE, Wheeler MB, van der Kooy D.
Cell Stem Cell. 2011 Mar 4;8(3):281-93. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2011.01.015.

Mesenchymal stem cells enhance allogeneic islet engraftment in nonhuman primates.
Berman DM, Willman MA, Han D, Kleiner G, Kenyon NM, Cabrera O, Karl JA, Wiseman RW, O'Connor DH, Bartholomew AM, Kenyon NS.
Diabetes. 2010 Oct;59(10):2558-68. doi: 10.2337/db10-0136. Epub 2010 Jul 9.

Islet neogenesis from the constitutively nestin expressing human umbilical cord matrix derived mesenchymal stem cells.
Kadam SS, Bhonde RR.
Islets. 2010 Mar-Apr;2(2):112-20. doi: 10.4161/isl.2.2.11280.

Congenic mesenchymal stem cell therapy reverses hyperglycemia in experimental type 1 diabetes.
Jurewicz M, Yang S, Augello A, Godwin JG, Moore RF, Azzi J, Fiorina P, Atkinson M, Sayegh MH, Abdi R.
Diabetes. 2010 Dec;59(12):3139-47. doi: 10.2337/db10-0542. Epub 2010 Sep 14.

Insulin-producing cells derived from rat bone marrow and their autologous transplantation in the duodenal wall for treating diabetes.
Zhang YH, Wang HF, Liu W, Wei B, Bing LJ, Gao YM.
Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009 May;292(5):728-35. doi: 10.1002/ar.20892.

Amelioration of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice with cells derived from human marrow stromal cells.
Zhao M, Amiel SA, Ajami S, Jiang J, Rela M, Heaton N, Huang GC.
PLoS One. 2008 Jul 16;3(7):e2666. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002666.

Generation of pancreatic hormone-expressing islet-like cell aggregates from murine adipose tissue-derived stem cells.
Chandra V, G S, Phadnis S, Nair PD, Bhonde RR.
Stem Cells. 2009 Aug;27(8):1941-53. doi: 10.1002/stem.117.

Human islet-derived precursor cells are mesenchymal stromal cells that differentiate and mature to hormone-expressing cells in vivo.
Davani B, Ikonomou L, Raaka BM, Geras-Raaka E, Morton RA, Marcus-Samuels B, Gershengorn MC.
Stem Cells. 2007 Dec;25(12):3215-22. Epub 2007 Sep 27.

Differentiation of rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells into pancreatic islet beta-cells.
Chen LB, Jiang XB, Yang L.
World J Gastroenterol. 2004 Oct 15;10(20):3016-20.

Engraftment in nonobese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mice of human CD34(+) cord blood cells after ex vivo expansion: evidence for the amplification and self-renewal of repopulating stem cells.
Piacibello W, Sanavio F, Severino A, Danè A, Gammaitoni L, Fagioli F, Perissinotto E, Cavalloni G, Kollet O, Lapidot T, Aglietta M.
Blood. 1999 Jun 1;93(11):3736-49.

Peripheral Neuropathy

Anti-inflammatory mesenchymal stem cells (MSC2) attenuate symptoms of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
Waterman RS, Morgenweck J, Nossaman BD, Scandurro AE, Scandurro SA, Betancourt AM.
Stem Cells Transl Med. 2012 Jul;1(7):557-65. doi: 10.5966/sctm.2012-0025. Epub 2012 Jul 9.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Pericytes derived from adipose-derived stem cells protect against retinal vasculopathy.
Mendel TA, Clabough EB, Kao DS, Demidova-Rice TN, Durham JT, Zotter BC, Seaman SA, Cronk SM, Rakoczy EP, Katz AJ, Herman IM, Peirce SM, Yates PA.
PLoS One. 2013 May 31;8(5):e65691. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065691. Print 2013.



Mesenchymal stem cell-based treatment for microvascular and secondary complications of diabetes mellitus.
Davey GC, Patil SB, O'Loughlin A, O'Brien T.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014 Jun 6;5:86. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2014.00086. eCollection 2014. Review.

Searching for stem cells in the adult pancreas: A futile effort?
Minami K.
J Diabetes Investig. 2013 Jul 8;4(4):331-3. doi: 10.1111/jdi.12061. No abstract available.

Exploring a new therapy for diabetic polyneuropathy - the application of stem cell transplantation.
Mizukami H, Yagihashi S.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014 Apr 9;5:45. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2014.00045. eCollection 2014. Review.

Adipose stem cell-based regenerative medicine for reversal of diabetic hyperglycemia.
Paek HJ, Kim C, Williams SK.
World J Diabetes. 2014 Jun 15;5(3):235-43. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v5.i3.235. Review.

Endothelial progenitor cells in diabetic retinopathy.
Lois N, McCarter RV, O'Neill C, Medina RJ, Stitt AW.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014 Apr 9;5:44. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2014.00044. eCollection 2014. Review.

New insight into early events in type 1 diabetes: role for islet stem cell exosomes.
Lukic ML, Pejnovic N, Lukic A.
Diabetes. 2014 Mar;63(3):835-7. doi: 10.2337/db13-1786. No abstract available.

Cell therapy for type 1 diabetes.
Muir KR, Lima MJ, Docherty HM, Docherty K.
QJM. 2014 Apr;107(4):253-9. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcu025. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Concise review: clinical programs of stem cell therapies for liver and pancreas.
Lanzoni G, Oikawa T, Wang Y, Cui CB, Carpino G, Cardinale V, Gerber D, Gabriel M, Dominguez-Bendala J, Furth ME, Gaudio E, Alvaro D, Inverardi L, Reid LM.
Stem Cells. 2013 Oct;31(10):2047-60. doi: 10.1002/stem.1457. Review.

Concise review: pancreas regeneration: recent advances and perspectives.
Lysy PA, Weir GC, Bonner-Weir S.
Stem Cells Transl Med. 2012 Feb;1(2):150-9. doi: 10.5966/sctm.2011-0025. Epub 2012 Jan 26. Review.

Cell transplantation therapy for diabetes mellitus: endocrine pancreas and adipocyte.
Fujikura J, Hosoda K, Nakao K.
Endocr J. 2013;60(6):697-708. Epub 2013 May 29. Review.

Cell-based interventions to halt autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Barcala Tabarrozzi AE, Castro CN, Dewey RA, Sogayar MC, Labriola L, Perone MJ.
Clin Exp Immunol. 2013 Feb;171(2):135-46. doi: 10.1111/cei.12019. Review.

Concise review: in search of unlimited sources of functional human pancreatic beta cells.
Scharfmann R, Rachdi L, Ravassard P.
Stem Cells Transl Med. 2013 Jan;2(1):61-7. doi: 10.5966/sctm.2012-0120. Epub 2012 Dec 19. Review.

MSC transplantation: a promising therapeutic strategy to manage the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy.
Ezquer ME, Ezquer FE, Arango-Rodríguez ML, Conget PA.
Biol Res. 2012;45(3):289-96. doi: 10.4067/S0716-97602012000300010. Review.

Stem cell-based strategies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Wen Y, Chen B, Ildstad ST.
Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2011 Jan;11(1):41-53. doi: 10.1517/14712598.2011.540235. Epub 2010 Nov 29. Review.

Bone marrow-derived stem cell transplantation for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes.
Fotino C, Ricordi C, Lauriola V, Alejandro R, Pileggi A.
Rev Diabet Stud. 2010 Summer;7(2):144-57. doi: 10.1900/RDS.2010.7.144. Epub 2010 Aug 10. Review.

Mesenchymal stem cells as feeder cells for pancreatic islet transplants.
Sordi V, Piemonti L.
Rev Diabet Stud. 2010 Summer;7(2):132-43. doi: 10.1900/RDS.2010.7.132. Epub 2010 Aug 10. Review.

Adult pancreatic alpha-cells: a new source of cells for beta-cell regeneration.
Chung CH, Levine F.
Rev Diabet Stud. 2010 Summer;7(2):124-31. doi: 10.1900/RDS.2010.7.124. Epub 2010 Aug 10. Review.

Pancreatic stem/progenitor cells for the treatment of diabetes.
Noguchi H.
Rev Diabet Stud. 2010 Summer;7(2):105-11. doi: 10.1900/RDS.2010.7.105. Epub 2010 Aug 10. Review.

Adult stem or progenitor cells in treatment for type 1 diabetes: current progress.
Liao YH, Verchere CB, Warnock GL.
Can J Surg. 2007 Apr;50(2):137-42. Review.

Stem/progenitor cells derived from adult tissues: potential for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Lechner A, Habener JF.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Feb;284(2):E259-66. Review.

Diabetic foot

Endothelial progenitor cells in diabetic foot syndrome.
Drela E, Stankowska K, Kulwas A, Rość D.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2012 Mar-Apr;21(2):249-54. Review.

Please click on the title of the article to open abstract in PubMed.


Therapeutic outcomes of transplanting autologous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilised peripheral mononuclear cells in diabetic patients with critical limb ischaemia.
Mohammadzadeh L, Samedanifard SH, Keshavarzi A, Alimoghaddam K, Larijani B, Ghavamzadeh A, Ahmadi AS, Shojaeifard A, Ostadali MR, Sharifi AM, Amini MR, Mahmoudian A, Fakhraei H, Aalaa M, Mohajeri-Tehrani MR.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2013 Jan;121(1):48-53. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1311646. Epub 2013 Jan 17.

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation modulates immunocompetent cells and improves β-cell function in Chinese patients with new onset of type 1 diabetes.
Li L, Shen S, Ouyang J, Hu Y, Hu L, Cui W, Zhang N, Zhuge YZ, Chen B, Xu J, Zhu D.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 May;97(5):1729-36. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-2188. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Angiographic demonstration of neoangiogenesis after intra-arterial infusion of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells in diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia.
Ruiz-Salmeron R, de la Cuesta-Diaz A, Constantino-Bermejo M, Pérez-Camacho I, Marcos-Sánchez F, Hmadcha A, Soria B.
Cell Transplant. 2011;20(10):1629-39. doi: 10.3727/096368910X0177.

Autologous stem cell therapy in the treatment of limb ischaemia induced chronic tissue ulcers of diabetic foot patients.
Kirana S, Stratmann B, Prante C, Prohaska W, Koerperich H, Lammers D, Gastens MH, Quast T, Negrean M, Stirban OA, Nandrean SG, Götting C, Minartz P, Kleesiek K, Tschoepe D.
Int J Clin Pract. 2012 Apr;66(4):384-93. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2011.02886.x. Epub 2012 Jan 27.

Therapeutical potential of autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cell transplantation in patients with type 2 diabetic critical limb ischemia.
Ozturk A, Kucukardali Y, Tangi F, Erikci A, Uzun G, Bashekim C, Sen H, Terekeci H, Narin Y, Ozyurt M, Ozkan S, Sayan O, Rodop O, Nalbant S, Sıldıroglu O, Yalnız FF, Senkal IV, Sabuncu H, Oktenli C.
J Diabetes Complications. 2012 Jan-Feb;26(1):29-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2011.11.007. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells in type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.
Jiang R, Han Z, Zhuo G, Qu X, Li X, Wang X, Shao Y, Yang S, Han ZC.
Front Med. 2011 Mar;5(1):94-100. doi: 10.1007/s11684-011-0116-z. Epub 2011 Mar 17.

Comparison of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells for treatment of diabetic critical limb ischemia and foot ulcer: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.
Lu D, Chen B, Liang Z, Deng W, Jiang Y, Li S, Xu J, Wu Q, Zhang Z, Xie B, Chen S.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011 Apr;92(1):26-36. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2010.12.010. Epub 2011 Jan 8.

Efficacy of autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell transplantation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Bhansali A, Upreti V, Khandelwal N, Marwaha N, Gupta V, Sachdeva N, Sharma RR, Saluja K, Dutta P, Walia R, Minz R, Bhadada S, Das S, Ramakrishnan S.
Stem Cells Dev. 2009 Dec;18(10):1407-16. doi: 10.1089/scd.2009.0164.

C-peptide levels and insulin independence following autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Couri CE, Oliveira MC, Stracieri AB, Moraes DA, Pieroni F, Barros GM, Madeira MI, Malmegrim KC, Foss-Freitas MC, Simões BP, Martinez EZ, Foss MC, Burt RK, Voltarelli JC.
JAMA. 2009 Apr 15;301(15):1573-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.470.

Combined treatment of intrapancreatic autologous bone marrow stem cells and hyperbaric oxygen in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Estrada EJ, Valacchi F, Nicora E, Brieva S, Esteve C, Echevarria L, Froud T, Bernetti K, Cayetano SM, Velazquez O, Alejandro R, Ricordi C.
Cell Transplant. 2008;17(12):1295-304.

Autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Voltarelli JC, Couri CE, Stracieri AB, Oliveira MC, Moraes DA, Pieroni F, Coutinho M, Malmegrim KC, Foss-Freitas MC, Simões BP, Foss MC, Squiers E, Burt RK.
JAMA. 2007 Apr 11;297(14):1568-76.

Last modified: May 22, 2015