Epoch of Quadjars (government of Fath 'Ali Shah (1797-1834) Whose reign coincided with rivalry among France, Great Britain, and Russia over eastern affairs. Strong enough to subdue a rebellion in Khorasan, he could not defeat the European powers. He became involved in a war with Russia in 1804 concerning the sovereignty of Georgia, whose ruler had transferred his allegiance from Persia to Russia. He purchased peace by abandoning his claim in 1813, after several years of war. He also lost Dagestan and Baku to Russia. In 1826 he took advantage of the recent death of Tsar Alexander I to renew the war but was compelled by the peace of 1828 to make an additional cession of territory, Persian Armenia" (Encyclopedia Britannica Online).
Developed during the reign of Darius the Great. Zendevesta, an ancient book of Persian philosophy devoted several volumes to medicine, one of which is Venidad, which states that there are nearly 100,000 diseases affecting mankind. Ahura, or Ormuzd, a mythical god of goodness around 1000 BC, delegated the art of healing to a powerful angel, Thrita, who became the god of medicine and healing. Angra mayanu or Ahriman represented evil and darkness to the Persians around 2000 BC and was opposed by Ormuzd. Persian medicine played an important role during the Mohammedan era and some of its eminent physicians were Rhazes (850-923), Haly Abbas (d.994), and Avicenna (980-1037)" (A Dictionary of the History of Medicine, Anton Sebastian).
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