Note: References to Major, followed by page numbers, pertain to the following book unless otherwise noted: Major, Ralph H., A History of Medicine. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1954.

18th Century

Box No.

Image

No.

Description

Photo

Neg.

Slide

P-4

S-3

18-1

Hales, Stephen (1677-1761), the outstanding English physiologist of the 17th century. He made the first recorded estimation of blood pressure (on a horse) in 1711. Major, 609

1

1

2

P-4

S-3

18-2

Hales, Stephen (1677-1761), experiments on sap. Stephen Hales’ 1718 experiments on sap demonstrated that the circulation of sap was dissimilar to that of blood. Major, 611

2

 

1

P-4

S-3

18-3

Priestley, Joseph (1733-1804), author of History of Electricity, 1767 and discoverer of oxygen in 1774. Major, 614

 

1

1

P-4

S-3

18-4

Thompson, Benjamin (1753-1814), monument, Munich. Thompson, also known as Count Rumford, carried out experiments on heat, devising a thermoscope and calorimeter to aid in his tests. He founded the Royal Institution of Great Britain for the study of science in 1800. Major, 639

1

 

2

P-4

S-3

18-5

Thompson, Benjamin (1753-1814), monument, Munich. Thompson, also known as Count Rumford, carried out experiments on heat, devising a thermoscope and calorimeter to aid in his tests. He founded the Royal Institution of Great Britain for the study of science in 1800. Major, 639

1

 

2

S-3

18-6

Lavoisier, Antoine (1743-94), pictured with wife. Called the "Father of Modern Chemistry," he discovered oxygen in 1777 and was the first to recognize that respiration was oxidation. Major, 616-18

   

1

S-3

18-7

Birthing chair, 18th century, French?

   

1

S-3

18-8

Birthing chair, Deventer, Hendrik van, 1734. A new model of birthing chair advocated by obstetrician Deventer (1651-1724) the "Father of Modern Midwifery." His chair had a moveable back and removable sides, adjustable arms and handgrips and included two foot-warmers for the patient. ? Birthing chair, Deventer, 1701 (Note: negative shows an earlier version of chair pictured in 18-8-S.) "Man-Midwifery and the Obstetric Chair," Martha Louise Selfridge, April 9, 1972, paper in Birthing Chair vertical file.

   

1

S-3

18-9

Cohn, Tobias (1652-1729), illustration from Maiasch Tobiyyah, [1708?]. (18-9-N is filed under 17-7-N—shared negative.)

1

1

1

S-3

18-10

Rowlandson, Thomas (1756-1827), "sage-femme" midwife caricature.

   

2

S-3

18-11

White birthing chair, 1772. Charles White (1728-1813) wrote A Treatise on the Management of Pregnant and Lying-in Women, and the Means of Curing…." a classic work in aseptic midwifery. He recommended that as soon as possible after delivery the patient should be placed in a reclining position instead of remaining horizontal. "Man-Midwifery and the Obstetric Chair," Martha Louise Selfridge, April 9, 1972, paper in Birthing Chair vertical file.

   

1

S-3

18-12

Birthing chair, Heister, 1791

   

1

S-3

18-13

Blunt, John, 1793, "A man – midwife." Illustration from Blunt’s Man-Midwifery Dissected depicting a half-man half-woman representing the male-midwife. On the male side of the figure are filets and forceps, while on the female side is the small, outstretched hand of a gentlewoman. During this period, physicians rather than midwives were attending middle- and upper-middle-class English women at the births of their children. Midwives were left to attend the beds of birthing women too poor to afford the services of physicians. Physicians were criticized for doing demeaning themselves by doing the "women's work" of delivery, with some suggestion that their motivations were prurient. From http://endeavor.med.nyu.edu/lit-med/lit-med-db/webdocs/webart/cruikshank39-art-.html

   

1

S-3

18-14

Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Vienna, c. 1961. Originally the Grosses Armenaus, in 1784 it became the world-famous Allgemeines Krankenhaus. Major, 580.

   

1

S-3

18-15

Krankenhaus, Munich, 1959.

   

1

S-3

18-16

Krankenhaus, Munich, 1959

   

1

S-3

18-17

Stoll, Maximilian (1742-87). Major, 638

   

1

S-3

18-18

Tranquilizing chair. Benjamin Rush (1746-1813), who has been called the "First American psychiatrist," designed this tranquilizing chair for the treatment of the insane. His 1812 work Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the Diseases of the Mind was the first American textbook on psychiatry. Major, 728

   

1

S-3

18-19

Anatomical charts, Fothergill. John Fothergill (1712-1780) had one of the largest practices in London. He donated a set of anatomical drawings and models and a skeleton to the Pennsylvania Hospital. They were used for the first systematic course in anatomy in North America. Major, 634, 722

   

1

S-3

18-20

Quarin, Joseph Freiherr von (1733-1814), Viennese doctor who was an early practitioner of homeopathy.

   

1

S-3

18-21

Hell, Maximilian. Hell, professor of astronomy at the University of Vienna and a Jesuit healer of the 1770s, claimed that he could cure the ailing with a magnetic steel plate. Mesmerism was an offshoot off this practice.

   

1

S-3

18-22

Microscope, Kirchner Museum

   

1

P-4

18-23

Anatomical Theater, Leiden. (Negative 18-23-N-2 filed under 16-51-N-2—shared negative.) Major 570-73

1

2

 

P-4

18-24

Bed bugs, illustration

1

   

P-4

18-25

Gassner, Johann Joseph, performing exorcism. Gassner (1727-1779) believed that either natural causes or the devil caused diseases. He exorcised patients by the laying on of hands, following the rites of the Church, and drew large crowds of sufferers. Major, 625

4

1

 

P-4

18-26

Haller, Albrecht von (1708-77), lithograph by Vigneron, after the well-known engraving of Bause, 1773. Haller was a famous anatomist, physiologist and botanist. Major, 574-75

 

1

 

P-4

18-27

Hoffmann, Friedrich (1660-1742). One of the first clinicians to describe rubella and to write excellent accounts of chlorosis and typhus fever. Major, 569-70

 

1

 

P-4

18-28

Stahl, Georg (1660-?) Stahl’s theories of "animism" emphasized the unity of the living organism and combated the one-sided materialism of the period. Major, 568. (Filed under 18-27-N--shared negative.)

 

1

 

P-4

18-29

Birthing chair, Bavarian, ca. 1750, University of Kansas Medical Center. Front view, slightly angled.

3

   

P-4

18-29-A

Birthing chair, Bavarian, ca. 1750, University of Kansas Medical Center. Side view, partially reclined position.

 

1

 

P-4

S-3

18-30

Birthing chair, Bavarian, ca. 1750, University of Kansas Medical Center, angled view.

6

   

P-4

S-3

18-31

Birthing chair, Bavarian, ca. 1750, University of Kansas Medical Center, front view.

2

1

1

P-4

S-3

18-32

Birthing chair, Bavarian, ca. 1750, University of Kansas Medical Center, view from above.

 

1

1

P-4

18-33

Billroth, Theodor. St. Gilgen, 1892. Major, 847, 1016

 

1

 

P-4

18-34

Mesmer, Franz Anton (1734-1815). Major, 623

 

1

 

P-4

18-35

Réaumur, René-A-F de (1683-1757). Major, 620

 

1

 

P-4

18-36

Morgagni, Giovanni Battista (1682-1771). Major, 585

 

2

 

P-4

18-37

Spallanzani, Lazzaro (1729-99). Major, 620

1

1

 

P-4

18-38

Perkins tractors

1

1

 

P-4

18-39

Perkins tractors, illustration of use

1

1

 

P-4

18-40

Perkins tractors, illustration of use

2

1

 

P-4

18-41

Reed, Walter, birthplace, Gloucester Co., VA, Restored birthplace (postcards)

2

   

P-4

18-42

Quimby, Phineas. Major, 627

3

   

P-4

18-43

Jones, John, M.D.

3

1

 

P-4

18-44

Thompson, Benjamin (1753-1814), portrait (different than 18-5-S). Major, 639

2

   

P-4

18-45

Thompson, Benjamin (1753-1814), portrait. Major, 639

2

   

P-4

18-46

Reed, Walter (1851-1902). Major, 854, 860, 863, 864, 913.

1

   

P-4

18-47-A

Nursing bottles, collection of Dr. E.H. Hashinger (probably spans several centuries) Three views of collection.

1

   

P-4

18-47-B

Nursing bottles, collection of Dr. E.H. Hashinger (probably spans several centuries) Three views of collection.

1

   

P-4

18-47-C

Nursing bottles, collection of Dr. E.H. Hashinger (probably spans several centuries) Three views of collection.

1

   

P-4

18-48

Thompson, Benjamin (1753-1814), birthplace in North Woburn, MA. Major, 639

3

   

P-4

18-49

Pennsylvania Hospital. Major, 717.

 

1

 

P-4

18-50

Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889. Major, 852.

 

1

 

P-4

18-51

Rush, Benjamin (1746-1813). Major, 724

 

1

 

P-4

18-52

Morgan, John (1735-89). Major, 718, 719, 765

 

1

 

P-4

18-53

Bard, Samuel (1742-?), portrait. Drawing by McCleland, etching by W. Main. Major, 732

1

1

 

P-4

18-54

Heberden, William (1710-1801). Major, 598

 

1

 

P-4

18-55

Black, Joseph (1728-99). Major, 613

 

1

 

P-4

18-56

Brown, John (ca. 1735-88). Major, 592

 

1

 

P-4

18-57

Cavendish, Henry (1731-1810). Major, 613

 

1

 

P-4

18-58

Fothergill, John (1712-80). Major, 634

1

   

P-4

18-59

Hunter, William (1718-83). Major, 581, 609

 

1

 

P-4

18-60

Mead, Richard (1673-1754). Major, 629

 

1

 

P-4

18-61

Pitcairn, David

 

1

 

P-4

18-62

Trotter, Thomas

 

1

 

P-4

18-63-A

Withering, William (1741-99). Major, 598

 

1

 

P-4

18-63-B

Withering, William (1741-99). Major, 598

 

1

 

P-4

18-64

St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, 1720. Major, 453

1

2

 

P-4

18-65

St. George’s Hospital. Major, 604-05

 

1

 

P-4

18-66

Giant: O’Brien the Irish Giant, skeleton of, 7’ 8". Royal College of Surgeons.

1

   

P-4

18-67

Cowpox, illustration of patients being inoculated. Major, 937

1

1

 

P-4

18-68

Dissection, illustration "The Dissecting Room," Rowlandson

 

1

 

P-4

18-69

Fetus in situ, illustration from William Hunter’s The Anatomy of the Gravid Uterus, 1774.

 

1

 

P-4

18-70

Gout, illustration by Von James Gillray, 1799.

 

1

 

P-4

18-71

Swieten, Gerhard van. Major, 577-81

 

1

 

P-4

18-72

Cullen, William. Major, 589-90, 634 [Negative filed with 18-71-N—shared negative.]

 

1

 

P-4

18-73

Haen, Anton de. Major, 581-83

 

1

 

P-4

18-74

University of Leyden. Major, 573

 

1

 

P-4

18-75

Bordeu, Théophile de (1772-76). Major, 636

2

   

P-4

18-76

Jacquin, Nikolaus Joseph von (1727-1817). He first studied medicine in Leiden, moving later to Paris and subsequently came to Vienna at the invitation of the Imperial Court doctor Gerard van Swieten. He participated in the first scientific expeditions to Central America, financed by the Imperial Court, and returned with extensive animal, seed, coin and ethnological samples as well as live animals and plants, along with minerals.

 

1

 

P-4

18-77

Desgenettes, René-Nicolas (17---1835) René-Nicolas Desgenettes, a medical officer during Napoleon’s campaign in Egypt, inoculating the French army against the bubonic plague, 1799.

2

1

 

P-4

18-78

Mesmer, Franz Anton, The Baquet. Major, 626

1

   

P-4

18-79

Ambulances, camel-drawn, in Egypt

2

1

 

P-4

18-80

Plague, during Napoleon’s campaign in Egypt: "Les Pestiferes de Jaffa"

2

   

P-4

18-81

Surgery, during battle, French

 

1

 

P-4

18-82

Hôtel Dieu, view in 1772, before the fire. Major, 426, 561, 772, 776. (Negative filed under 17-70—shared negative.)

1

1

 

P-4

18-83

Bicêtre, late 1800s. In 1792 it housed more than 100 psychiatric patients. Early in the 1900s it became a general asylum for the indigent, a lunatic asylum, and a prison. Major, 658

 

1

 

P-4

18-84

Spallanzani, Lazzaro (1729-99). Major, 620

 

1

 

P-4

18-85

Shippen, William (1736-1808). Major, 721-24

 

1

 

P-4

18-86

Scheele, Carl (1742-86). Major, 616

 

1

 

P-4

18-87

Swedenborg, Emanuel (1688-1772), best known as an astute Biblical theologian, he was also an expert in mine engineering, metallurgy, astronomy, physics, zoology, anatomy, and political economics.

1

   

P-4

18-88-A

Touchpieces, gold and silver, material evidence of the popular practice among British royalty of touching sufferers of a form of tuberculosis called scrofula. The monarchs were believed to be endowed with the power of healing, a divine gift which was used to confirm their right to rule. Major, 348-50, 430, 546

1

3

 

P-4

18-88-B

Touchpieces, gold and silver, material evidence of the popular practice among British royalty of touching sufferers of a form of tuberculosis called scrofula. The monarchs were believed to be endowed with the power of healing, a divine gift which was used to confirm their right to rule. Major, 348-50, 430, 546

2

   

P-4

18-89

Auenbrugger, Leopold (1722-1809). Major, 583-84

 

1

 

P-4

18-90

Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc (1707-88). Scientist, naturalist, and philosopher.

1

   

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Revised: May 11, 2000