Note: References to Major, followed by page numbers, pertain to the following book unless otherwise noted: Major, Ralph H., A History of Medicine. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1954.

17th Century

Box No.

Image

No.

Description

Photo

Neg.

Slide

S-2

17-1

Tulp, Nicolaus, frontispiece? portrait? Tulp (1593-1674) emphasized pathological anatomy in his 1641 work Observationes Medicae. Major, 538

   

1

P-3

S-2

17-2

Pulsilogium, 1st model (Santorio). Major, 486

1

 

1

P-3

S-2

17-3

Pulsilogium, 2nd model? Major, 486

1

1

1

P-3

S-2

17-4

Pulsilogium, 3rd model (Santorio)? Major, 486

1

 

1

P-3

S-2

17-5

Pulse watch, Mundus subterraneus. Major, 562

3

2

3

P-3

S-2

17-6

Subterranean lakes, illustration from Mundus Subterraneus, Athanasius Kircher, 1665. Possibly the first printed work on geophysics and vulcanology, it held that much of the phenomena on earth, including the formation of minerals, were due to fire under the terra firma. Major, 529-31.

2

2

1

P-3

S-2

17-7

Subterranean fire, illustration from Mundus Subterraneus, Athanasius Kircher, 1665. Possibly the first printed work on geophysics and vulcanology, it held that much of the phenomena on earth, including the formation of minerals, were due to fire under the terra firma. Major, 529-31.

2

2

1

P-3

S-2

17-8

University of Padua, 17th century, exterior view, from Jacob Tomasini’s Gymnasium Patavinum, 1654. Major, 327, 497.

4

2

1

P-3

S-2

17-9

Santorio, Santorio (1561-1636), bust. Santorio introduced instruments of precision and has been described as "the first famous master of experimental medicine." He conducted what was probably the earliest controlled study of basal metabolic rate, described in his 1614 work Ars de statica medecina. Major, 484-87, 551.

4

1

2

P-3

S-2

17-10

Santorio on the steel-yard chair. This illustration from Santorio Santorio’s Medicina statica, 1711, shows the author seated in his steelyard chair, about to weigh himself after a meal. This was the first controlled study of what is now termed basal metabolism. Major, 484-87, 551

2

1

1

P-3

S-2

17-11

Santorio on the steel-yard chair, slightly different view: no window pictured. This illustration from Santorio Santorio’s Medicina statica, 1711, shows the author seated in his steelyard chair, about to weigh himself after a meal. This was the first controlled study of what is now termed basal metabolism. Major, 484-87, 551

4

1

1

S-2

17-12

Obstetrics: birth helper, Dutch

   

1

S-2

17-13

Obstetrics: birthing scene, Lit de travail, Boffe, 1600s

   

1

S-2

17-14

Mauriceau, Francois: "tire-tete" instruments from his Maladies des Femmes Grosses, 1668, the outstanding obstetrical work of its time. Mauriceau (1637-1709) was the first physician to devote himself fully to practicing midwifery. Major, 558

   

1

S-2

17-15

Kircher, Athanasius (1602-1680), bust. Kircher made the first clear statement of the "germ theory" of contagious diseases to be based on microscopical studies. Major, 529-31.

   

1

P-3

S-2

17-16

Kircher, Athanasius, portrait, seated. Major, 529-31.

4

1

1

P-3

S-2

17-17

Kircher, microscope. Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680) used this microscope in 1658 to examine plague specimens. From this research he made the first clear statement of the "germ theory" of contagious diseases to be based on microscopical studies. Major, 529-31.

2

 

2

P-3

S-2

17-18

Leeuwenhoek, Anton von (1632-1712). Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch optician described as the "Father of Protozoology and Bacteriology," was one of the earliest experimenters with microscopes. In 1681 he discovered that protozoa and bacteria inhabited the human body, an important step in the development of germ theory. Major, 531-34.

 

1

1

P-3

S-2

17-19

Thermoscope in shape of frog, 1646, invented by Benjamin Thompson (1753-1814), also known as Count Rumford. Major, 639.

1

 

2

P-3

S-2

17-20

Thermometer with funnel: Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) devised three types of thermometers; in this model the patient breathed into the end of a funnel.

1

1

1

P-3

S-2

17-21

Thermometer with hand bulb: Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) devised three types of thermometers; this model featured a large bulb to be held by the hand.

1

 

1

P-3

S-2

17-22

Thermometer: Fludd. From Philosophia moysaica, Robert Fludd (1574-1637),1638.

1

 

1

P-3

S-2

17-23

Grosses Armenhaus, Vienna, 1695, 1781 (two images on negative). In 1784 it became the world-famous Allgemeines Krankenhaus. Major, 580

 

1

1

P-3

S-2

17-24

Thermometer: Swammerdam. Jan Swammerdam (1637-80), a Dutch naturalist and biologist, pioneered in microscopic studies. Major, 558.

1

1

1

P-3

S-2

17-25

Magic lantern, Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680). Kircher published this first known illustration of a magic lantern in Ars magna lucis et umbrae, 1646. Major, 529-31.

2

1

2

S-2

17-26

Birthing chair, Germany, 17th century

   

1

P-3

17-27

Dance of Death, Matthew Merian the Elder, Frankfurt, 1649. Death is shown with a urinal case hanging from his left arm. Major, 287. [Negative filed under M-14-N-2—shared negative.]

1

2

 

P-3

17-28

Helmont, Johann Baptiste van, 1577-1544. His chief work, Ortus medicinae (1648), revolved around Blas (basically, Paracelsus’ Archaeus, an invisible, spiritual energy that governs all material change) and Gas (carbon dioxide). He considered fermentation the basis of life processes and diseases, made astute observations about asthma and its causes, and made the first recorded observations of the specific gravity of urine. Major, 500

2

   

P-3

17-29

Kircher, Athanasius (1602-1680), "flea glass," 1646. D represents the candle flame, C the object under examination mounted on a plane glass, A & B the tube of the simple microscope. Major, 529-31.

1

2

 

P-3

17-30

Kircher, Athanasius (1602-1680), portrait (bust). Major, 529-31.

 

1

 

P-3

17-31

Lepers, wandering, engraving by Vischer, 1608. Major, 336

 

1

 

P-3

17-32

Blood transfusion, first illustration of, Purmann’s Lorbeer-Krantz oder Wundartzney, 1685. Purmann shows a transfusion he performed in 1668. Major, 518

 

1

 

P-3

17-33

Apothecary shop, Vienna (postcard)

1

   

P-3

17-34

Baglivi, Giorgio (1688-1706). Major, 506

 

1

 

P-3

17-35

Patin, Guy (1601-1672). Major, 458

 

2

 

P-3

17-36

Surgical cutting plunger, Theodore Aschman, M.D.

1

   

P-3

17-37

Palfryn, Jean (1650-1730) obstetrical forceps

 

1

1

P-3

17-38

Harvey, William (1578-1657), 1628. Major, 495

 

1

 

P-3

17-39

Stelluti, Francesco: painting reproduced on cover of Goldschmidt’s catalog.

1

1

 

P-3

17-40

Boyle, Robert (16??-91). Major, 513

2

2

 

P-3

17-41

Browne, Sir Thomas. Major, 544

 

1

 

P-3

17-42

Lower, Richard (1631-91). Major, 517, 519

 

1

 

P-3

17-43

Willis, Thomas (1621-75). Major, 513, 522, 523, 567

2

   

P-3

17-44

King’s evil, Charles II administering touch for. Major, 350, 528

1

1

 

P-3

17-45

King’s evil, king administering touch for. Major, 350, 528

1

   

P-3

17-46-A

King’s evil, proclamation by King, 1616. Major, 350, 528

1

   

P-3

17-46-B

King’s evil, proclamation by Charles II, 1662. Major, 350, 528

3

   

P-3

17-47

Plague, London, 1665. Major, 547

1

1

 

P-3

17-48

Microscope, Hooke’s, 1664. Major, 514

 

2

 

P-3

17-49

Anatomy: skull, from Nathaniel Highmore, Corporis hvmani disqvisitio anatomica, 1651

2

   

P-3

17-50

Pulse points, diagram modified after Cleyer, 1682

 

1

 

P-3

17-51

Graaf, Reinier de (1641-73). Major, 535, 543, 560

1

   

P-3

17-52

Graaf, Reinier de (1641-73), pancreatic fistula of. Major, 535

 

1

 

P-3

17-53

Leeuwenhoek, Anton von, simple microscope. Von Leeuwenhoek (1632-1712), a Dutch optician described as the "Father of Protozoology and Bacteriology," was one of the earliest experimenters with microscopes. In 1681 he discovered that protozoa and bacteria inhabited the human body, an important step in the development of germ theory. Major, 531-34

 

2

 

P-3

17-54

Tulp, Nicolaus. "The Anatomy Lesson," Rembrandt, showing Tulp demonstrating the anatomy of the arm. Tulp (1593-1674) emphasized pathological anatomy in his 1641 work Observationes Medicae. Major, 538

1

2

 

P-3

17-55

Sylvius, Franciscus de la Boe (1478-1555), aka Jacques Dubois, 1680. Major, 503-04

 

1

 

P-3

17-56

Bontius, Jacobus (1592-1631). Major, 537-38

 

1

 

P-3

17-57

Surgeon’s Guild, C. Bockelman and Jan Six, 1699

1

1

 

P-3

17-58

Bordeu, Théophile de (1722-1776), one of the founders of the school of vitalism. Major, 636 [Filed under 17-57-N—shared negative.]

 

1

 

P-3

17-59

Boerhaave, Hermann (1668-1738), illustration of lecture by. Major, 570-73

1

   

P-3

17-60

Renaudot, Théophraste (1586-1653), statue of

2

   

P-3

17-61

Urine, "Médecin dans son cabinet examinant des urines,"; par Van Ostade, 1665, in Laignel-Lavastine, Maxine, Historie générale de la médecine, vol. II

1

   

P-3

17-62

Uroscopy? "Le médecin chez la malade,"; par K. Netscher, 1664, in Laignel-Lavastine, Maxine, Historie générale de la médecine, vol. II

1

1

 

P-3

17-63

Mitral stenosis, first illustration of. From Vieussens, Raymond, Traité nouveau de la structure et des causes du mouvement naturel du coeur, 1815.

1

1

 

P-3

17-64

Compound microscope, Descartes’ design for, 1637.

1

1

 

P-3

17-65

Doctor’s "habit"

 

1

 

P-3

17-66

Surgeon’s "habit"

 

1

 

P-3

17-67

Apothecary’s "habit"

 

1

 

P-3

17-68

Frère Jacque operating by the perineal route. [I’m guessing on the date.]

 

1

 

P-3

17-69

Hôtel-Dieu, hospital room, after an "estampe de la Bibliothèque Nationale." Major, 426, 561, 772, 776.

 

1

 

P-3

17-70

Hôtel-Dieu, religious order serving meal to the "poor sick." Major, 426, 561, 772, 776.

1

1

 

P-3

17-71

Hôtel-Dieu, view of exterior. Major, 426, 561, 772, 776.

1

1

 

P-3

17-72

Hôtel-Dieu, entrance on the square. Major, 426, 561, 772, 776. (17-72-N filed under 17-71-N—shared negative.)

1

1

 

P-3

17-73

Santorio, Santorio, portrait from Opera Omnia, Venice, Brogiolo, 1660. Santorio (1561-1636), who introduced instruments of precision, has been described as "the first famous master of experimental medicine." Major, 484-88.

3

1

 

P-3

17-74

Santorio mouth thermometer, first illustration of. From Commentaria in I Fen I libri canonis Avicenna, Venice, Sarcina, 1625. Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) devised three types of thermometers.

1

   

P-3

17-75

Microscope, first illustrated use of in medicine. A Campani microscope is used to examine a leg wound. 1686

 

1

 

P-3

17-76

Borelli, Giovanni Alfonso (1608-81), from portrait on his tomb in Rome. Major, 505-06

 

1

 

P-3

17-77

Galileo, portrait. Major, 483, 508

 

3

 

P-3

17-78

Malpighi, Marcello (1628-94), from portrait in the Galleria Borghese, Rome. Major, 507-11, 557

 

1

 

P-3

17-79

Anatomy of embryology, from Malpighi, Marcello, De Formatione Pulli in Ovo. Major, 510

 

1

 

P-3

17-80

University of Padua, anatomical theater, from Jacob Tomasini’s Gymnasium Patavinum, 1654. Major, 327, 347

2

   

P-3

17-81

Santorio’s "Balneatorium instrumentum,"; from one of his Commentaria. Santorio, Santorio (1561-1636) introduced instruments of precision and has been described as "the first famous master of experimental medicine." He conducted what was probably the earliest controlled study of basal metabolic rate, described in his 1614 work Ars de statica medecina. Major, 484-87, 551.

3

1

 

P-3

17-82

Kepler, Johan (1571-1630). Kepler, a German astronomer, introduced three important laws of planetary motion and helped the Copernican model of the solar system gain general acceptance.

 

1

 

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