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CELL AND TISSUE BIOLOGY EXAM #2

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BONE AND CARTILAGE

CARTILAGE: Consists of chondrocytes in lacunae, in an extracellular matrix.

TYPES OF CARTILAGE:

UNIQUE QUALITIES OF BONE:

GENERAL PROPERTIES OF BONE:

Bone Cell Types:

BONE-MATRIX PROTEINS: Following are constituents of the bone-matrix.

COMPACT BONE ULTRASTRUCTURE:

JOINTS:

General Characteristics of Ossification:

INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSIFICATION: Formation of bone directly from osteoblasts, with no cartilage intermediate.

ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION: Bone is formed on a cartilage model. The formation of the bone itself is identical to intramembranous ossification.

THE ARF CYCLE: The process of BONE-REMODELING, which occurs during growth and in mature bone. It explains the interdependence between osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity in bone-remodeling, which explains why Osteoporosis is difficult to treat.

PARATHYROID HORMONE: Enhances the rate of bone-turnover. Ultimately it takes Ca+2 from the bone and puts it into the blood.

VITAMIN-D: 1,25-Dihydroxy-Vit-D stimulates osteoblasts to synthesis the bone matrix and alkaline phosphatase.

CALCITONIN: Takes Ca+2 from the blood and deposits it into the bone.

TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR (TGF-beta): This is one connection between osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

MECHANISMS OF CALCIFICATION:

CHILDHOOD OSTEOPOROSIS: A deficiency in Carbonic Anhydrase II in children.

FRACTURE HEALING: Healing recapitulates development.

DR. LUKERT'S CLINICAL LECTURE: OSTEOPOROSIS, defined as the decrease in bone mass to the point that a fracture may occur with normal activity.


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VASCULAR SYSTEM

THREE LAYERS OF VASCULATURE:

PERICYTES: Covers the outer surface of the capillary.

THREE TYPES OF CAPILLARIES:

ENDOCYTOSIS:

TRANSCYTOSIS: Endothelial cell transports some plasma constituents out of the blood. There are different methods (pathways) by which this can be done:

METABOLIC FUNCTIONS OF ENDOTHELIAL CELLS: Endothelial cells make lots of different things.

ATHEROSCLEROSIS: Deposition of fatty tissue, usually on a muscular artery, to form a lesion called an atheroma. Progression of damage is as follows:


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THE EYE

THE EYELID:

THE SCLERA: Dense collagenous tissue. Like the cornea, but it is moe opaque.

THE CORNEA: Collagenous tissue but it is more translucent.

CILIARY EPITHELIUM: The epithelial bilayer lining of the ciliary body.

RETINAL PIGMENTED EPITHELIUM (RPE): The underlying epithelia of the neural retina.

THE IRIS:

THE LENS: It's pretty translucent.

THE RETINA: From the back of the eye (outer limit of eye) to the inner most layer...

FUNDUS OF THE EYE:

CLINICAL STUFF FROM DR. WARREN:

PHOTOTRANSDUCTION:


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BLOOD AND BONE MARROW

HEMATOPOIESES: Development of erythrocytes and leucocytes

Microenvironmental Factors that Regulate Cell Differentiation:

HOMING: In bone-marrow transplants, the process of stem-cells finding their way to the bone-marrow.

BONE MARROW:

ERYTHROCYTES:

BONE-MARROW TRANSPLANTATION:

LEUCOCYTES: White blood cells, composed of Granulocytes and Mononuclear Leucocytes.

MEGAKARYOCYTES: They shed fragments of their cell bodies to form Platelets.


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IMMUNE SYSTEM

Natural Immunity:

CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY: T-LYMPHOCYTES

HUMORAL IMMUNITY: B-LYMPHOCYTES

ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELL (APC): They control the activation of T-Cells.

LYMPHOCYTE SURFACE ANTIGENS: These are really just surface markers on T and/or B Cells. There are four general types of surface antigens.

THYMUS: Site for maturation of T-Cells.

LYMPH NODES: Filters both blood and lymph, trapping antigenic substances and lymphocytes.

SPLEEN: Filters only blood, not lymph.

MUCOSA-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE (MALT): Lymphoid tissue found along the GI and Respiratory tracts, there to protect from outside antigens.

THE PRIMARY IMMUNE RESPONSE: This occurs in lymph nodes, at the interface between T and B-cells (paracortical area and follicles).

IMMUNOGLOBULIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION:


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Copyright 1999, Scott Goodman, all rights reserved